Weather 250

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Clouds, Precipitation and Storms

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Weather 250

  1. 1. Weather 250 Clouds, Precipitation, Storms
  2. 2. Clouds <ul><li>Clouds are “water containers” </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure, temperature, moisture and dust are the main ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>The cooler the air, the lower the clouds </li></ul><ul><li>The less the moisture, the smaller the clouds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Clouds and Height <ul><li>Three types of clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Stratus-low </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus-mid level </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrus-high </li></ul><ul><li>All the other parts of the name signify shape and form </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cloud Gallery
  5. 5. Cloud Gallery 2
  6. 6. How does this relate to weather systems? <ul><li>The closer the front, the lower the clouds </li></ul><ul><li>As it approaches the clouds get more vertical </li></ul>
  7. 7. What goes up, must come down
  8. 8. How does it form? <ul><li>There are typically 1000 condensation nuclei in one cubic centimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature controls the type of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>The exception is hail and it depends on convection currents in the cloud </li></ul>
  9. 9. What about Hail? <ul><li>Hail can range in size from sand grain to softball size </li></ul><ul><li>Accompany cold fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Can be associated with tornadoes or thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Indications of severe weather </li></ul>
  10. 10. When Storms get big
  11. 11. Bang and Boom: thunder <ul><li>Electricity in the air </li></ul><ul><li>Hotter than the surface of the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge of positive and negative charges </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do thunderheads form? <ul><li>Thunderheads are called SuperCells </li></ul><ul><li>Large Convection Cells </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hurricanes vs. Tornadoes <ul><li>Hurricanes are larger storms 100 km or larger </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes are basically large rain storms </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes are warm front products </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes are cold front products </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes can be sustained over a month/tornadoes are short events about an hour </li></ul><ul><li>Wet hurricanes/dry tornadoes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Measurement of Hurricanes and Tornadoes
  15. 15. Hurricane Gallery
  16. 16. Hurricane History <ul><li>Over 35 - Red </li></ul><ul><li>25-35 - Orange </li></ul><ul><li>10-25 - Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>8-10 - Green </li></ul><ul><li><8 - Blue </li></ul><ul><li>0 - White </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hurricane tracks 1954-2004 <ul><li>These are only Hurricanes - category 1-5 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004 and 2005 four major hurricanes hit Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts has had two major hurricanes in the last twenty years </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tornado Occurrences <ul><li>Tornadoes are not always large </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes often come in clusters of one or more </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tornado Gallery
  20. 20. Tornado Gallery 2
  21. 21. Nor’easter Feb 12-13 2006
  22. 22. Nor’easters <ul><li>Uniquely northeast storm </li></ul><ul><li>Generally two merged lows </li></ul><ul><li>Can last for days </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hurricane-like </li></ul><ul><li>Not always a snow event </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Storm 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>February 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>March 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>January 2005 </li></ul>
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