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Earth-Science-Week-2-Part-2.2.pptx

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Earth-Science-Week-2-Part-2.2.pptx
What is wind?
Wind is the horizontal
movement of air from an area
of high pressure to lower
pressure.
What Causes Wind?
 Wind is the movement of air caused by
differences in air pressure. The uneven
heating of the earth produces these
pressure belts, which cause winds; the
air rises and sinks (convection
currents). When this happens at the
poles of the earth, global winds occur.
These winds move all over the world.
Earth-Science-Week-2-Part-2.2.pptx
WIND
It is caused by:
1.Differences in temperature.
2.Differences in pressure.
DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE
1. Warm air rises.
Warming air make the
molecules move faster
and spread out.
This makes the air less
dense.
Less dense air is light and
will rise.

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Earth-Science-Week-2-Part-2.2.pptx

  • 2. What is wind? Wind is the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to lower pressure.
  • 3. What Causes Wind?  Wind is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure. The uneven heating of the earth produces these pressure belts, which cause winds; the air rises and sinks (convection currents). When this happens at the poles of the earth, global winds occur. These winds move all over the world.
  • 5. WIND It is caused by: 1.Differences in temperature. 2.Differences in pressure.
  • 6. DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE 1. Warm air rises. Warming air make the molecules move faster and spread out. This makes the air less dense. Less dense air is light and will rise.
  • 7. DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE 2. Cold air sinks. Cooling air makes the molecules move slower and group together. This makes the air more dense. More dense air will sink.
  • 8. DIFFERENCES IN PRESSURE 1. Rising air creates Low pressure. If air is lifted up, that means there is Less air pushing down on Earth. 2. Sinking air creates High pressure. If air is sinking, then air is pushing down on the surface of Earth with a High amount of pressure.
  • 9. The Creation of Wind 1. Differences in temperature cause air to rise and sink all over Earth’s surface. 2. Rising and sinking air creates high and low pressure. 3. The atmosphere does NOT like UNBALANCED PRESSURE SOOOO… IT TRIES TO EQUAL OUT PRESSURE BY MOVING AIR FROM HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE.
  • 10. Winds are created by … 1. Heating the air, decreases pressure (warm air rises creating a low pressure area). 2. Cool air rushes in to replace the warm air (cooler, denser, air produces high pressure). 3. As air goes from high pressure to low pressure, winds form. 4. Wind is a horizontal movement of air. 5.There are 2 types of winds: local & global.
  • 11. Global Winds Global winds are patterns of wind that happen all over the world. They are created by the spin of the earth and the difference in temperatures.
  • 12. Prevailing Westerlies These winds predict most of our weather. They blow from west to east across the United States (California to North Carolina).
  • 13. Polar Easterlies These winds blow close to the north and south poles. They blow away from the poles and curve east to west. These winds are cold, dry winds.
  • 14. Trade Winds Trade winds are winds that circle near the equator. Trade winds have been used by ships sailing the ocean for centuries. They help ship captains know which direction they are going.
  • 15. Local Winds  Local winds in one particular area. Types of local winds include:  Sea breeze  Land breeze  Mountain breeze  Valley breeze
  • 16. During the day, the sun heats the ocean and the land. The land heats up much quicker than the large ocean does. This causes the air above the land to heat up and rise. The cool air from the water moves toward the land to replace the rising warm air. When the air moves from the sea to the land, this is called a sea breeze. Sea Breeze
  • 17. At night, a land breeze occurs near the ocean. The air above the land cools down fast, while the air above water stays warm. The cool air from the land sinks and moves toward the ocean to replace the rising warm air. When the air blows from the land out to the sea, this is called a land breeze. Land Breeze
  • 18.  During the day, the sun heats the valley air quickly. The warm air rises and moves up the mountain. This creates a valley breeze. Valley Breeze
  • 19. Mountain Breeze  At night, the mountain air cools faster than the valley. The cool air sinks down the mountain causing the wind to move in the opposite direction. This creates a mountain breeze.
  • 21. TORNADOES Defined as a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground.
  • 22. •Occur in many parts of the world •Found most frequently in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains •Most frequent during the spring and summer months. •An average of 800 tornadoes are reported nationwide each year •80 deaths and over 1,500 injuries average per year. •Capable of tremendous destruction with wind speeds of 250 mph or more. •Damage paths can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long.
  • 23. • Some tornadoes may form during the early stages of rapidly developing thunderstorms. • Occasionally, two or more tornadoes may occur at the same time. • Tornadoes may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up. • Waterspouts are weak tornadoes that form over warm water.
  • 25. A lower cloud base in the center of the photograph identifies an area of rotation known as a rotating wall cloud. This area is often nearly rain-free. Note rain in the background. Moments later a strong tornado develops this area. Softball-size hail and damaging "straight-line" winds can occur with this storm. Look out for: •Dark, often greenish sky •Wall cloud •Large hail •Loud roar; similar to a freight train
  • 26. • Tornadoes hide in many ways -- under cover of darkness, heavy rain, landscape. • They usually develop in areas in which a severe thunderstorm watch or warning is in effect. Remain alert to signs of an approaching tornado and seek shelter if threatening conditions exist
  • 27. • In a home or building, move to a pre- designated shelter, such as a basement. • Stay away from windows • If an underground shelter is not available, move to an interior room or hallway on the lowest floor and get under a sturdy piece of furniture. Interior bathroom was all that was left standing of this house: • Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes and should be abandoned.
  • 28. • Get out of automobiles. • Do not try to outrun a tornado in your car; instead, leave it immediately.
  • 29. • Go to an inside hallway at the lowest level (central 1st floor hallway). • Stay inside • 1st floor aisle side cubicles under work surface • Rooms (restrooms, etc. adjoining 1st floor aisle • Avoid places with wide-span roofs areas • Move away from exterior walls and windows • Get under a piece of sturdy furniture such as a cubicle work surface or heavy table or desk and hold on to it. (Several of the people that survived the Jarrell tornado lived because they had gotten into a bathtub). • Use arms to protect head and neck.
  • 31. What is a Hurricane? A hurricane is a large, spinning wind system that develops over warm seas near the equator. Hurricanes are technically tropical revolving storms. They are characterized by rotating winds that have the speed of about 75 mph
  • 32.  The tropics mostly have the most extreme weather conditions.  The air heated by the sun rises swiftly which creates areas of very low pressure, the warm air rises then it becomes loaded with moisture.  It creates into a massive thunder cloud.  It can be formed into a huge circle that can be up to 1,200 miles across.
  • 33. A Hurricane Begins  Hurricanes usually begin in the steamy, late summer in the tropics, when the seas are the warmest.  For the hurricanes to develop, the sea surface temperature has to be at least 78 degrees Fahrenheit.  When the warm air rises from the seas and condenses into clouds.
  • 34.  The result of this mixture of heat and moisture is often a collection of thunderstorms, from which a tropical storm can develop.  During the hurricane season, the coriolis effect of the earth’s rotation starts the winds in the thunderstorm spinning in a circular motion.
  • 35. At the center of the storm is a calm, often cloudless area called the eye, where there is no rain, and the winds are fairly light.
  • 36. The Buildup  As the hurricane builds up it begins to move  It is sustained by a steady flow of warm, moist air  The strongest winds and heaviest rains are found in the towering clouds which merge into a wall about 12-18 miles from the storm’s center
  • 37.  Winds around the eye can reach speeds of up to 125 mph and a fully developed hurricane pumps out about two million tons of air per second  The hurricane travels at speeds of between 10 & 30 mph  When it hits an area of cold sea or land, it enters a cold, inhospitable climate, where its supply of moist air is cut off
  • 38.  The eye quickly disappears and the storm begins to die down  Yet it is when it hits the land that a hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone causes most damage  90% of victims are claimed when the storm first smashes ashore, bringing with it not only powerful winds, but huge waves called storm surges
  • 39. The Storm Surge  The deadly companion of every tropical storm is the storm surge; the huge mounds of seawater that are whipped up by the powerful winds  The first sign is a storm surge can occur nearly a week before the actual hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone  Winds move outward much faster than he storm itself and whip up the sea into waves up to 5 ft. high along the costline
  • 40. When the storm is about 110 mi. from land, huge waves driven by its winds begin to crash ashore The deafening roar of the surf can be heard miles inland This is followed by the most deadly and destructive element of the surge as the huge bulge of water that forms beneath the storm’s eye smashes ashore
  • 41. Low-lying coastal areas can be devastated by the severe floods that result, and many lives and homes are often lost
  • 42. The Damage For anyone caught in a hurricane, the experience is a terrifying one. Fierce, whirling winds rip across the countryside, overturning cars and heavy trucks
  • 43. Trees are ripped from the ground, and whole buildings can be lifted from their foundations Some of the worst disasters occur near coastal areas, where stormy seas contribute to the havoc that is wreaked
  • 44.  In 1938, one of the most powerful hurricanes in history swept through Long Island, New York  In just seven hours, the storm killed at least 600 people and destroyed the homes of over 60,000  The total damage was estimated at the enormous sum of one-third of one billion dollars  The storm destroyed26,000 cars and 29,000 miles of electric, telegraph, and telephone wires and flooded thousands of acres of land
  • 45.  One coastal area on the island was so badly it hit by the hurricane that 200 homes there were completely swept away  Rescue workers searching for missing people had to use maps from telephone companies to identify the sites on which the houses once stood
  • 46. Are We Causing More?  Hurricanes are sustained by warm, moist air  The countries of northern Europe have a fairly cool climate  So why have they been hit by hurricanes in recent years  One theory is that global warming is having some effect
  • 47. As the planet heats up, more parts of the world are developing the kind of climate that is ideal for tropical storms The gases in earth’s atmosphere act like the glass of a greenhouse, trapping enough heat from the sun to keep the planet warm enough for life
  • 48. This is known as the “Greenhouse Effect”. One of the main greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Other greenhouse gases are methane, water, vapor, and chlorofluocarbons. The only way we can prevent global warming is by controlling the amounts of theses gases that are released into the atmosphere.
  • 50. What is weather? Weather describes the state of the atmosphere at any particular time. Weather can be described in terms of temperature, precipitation (snow, rain & hail), wind speed and direction, visibility and cloud amounts.
  • 51. What do you mean by weather forecasting? Weather forecasting – the prediction of the weather through application of the principles of physics, supplemented by a variety of statistical and empirical techniques.
  • 52. The weather forecasting has now become a science and it is performed by adopting the following procedures (steps) : 1. recording of weather data (temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud forms, humidity and precipitation, visibility, storms etc.) 2. collection of weather data from weather recording (observations centers) stations scattered world over including both land and ocean surfaces 3. transmission of weather data collected form major weather stations to sub centers .
  • 53. 4. Compilation of weather data. 5. Plotting of weather data on maps and daily weather records, synoptic charts etc. 6. Analysis of weather cqharts and maps with the help of electronic computers etc. 7. Final forecasting of weather and numerical modeling .