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1
Tropical Cyclones
in the
South-West
Pacific
Tropical Cyclones are a natural
phenomena that sometimes
threaten people.
2
3
Tropical Cyclones.
Tropical Cyclones are known by many
names:
• Typhoons in South-East Asia
• Hurricanes in the Caribbean.
• Tropical Cyclones in the South West
Pacific
• These weather patterns are extremely
dangerous to humans because in
general we live on or near the coast.
• In the South-West Pacific tropical
cyclones regularly devastate the social
and economic basis of many countries.
ie Queensland after Cyclone Yasi
• Most of the smaller Polynesian countries
are at risk from Cyclones. Fiji Tonga or
Vanuatu.
4
• Category One: Winds 74-95 mph (119-
153 kph). Storm surge generally 1-2m
above normal. Little damage to
buildings.
• Category Two: Winds 96-110 mph
(154-177 kph). Storm surge generally 2-
2.5m above normal. Some roofing, door,
and window damage of buildings.
• Category Three: Winds 111-130 mph
(178-209 kph). Storm surge generally 3-
4m above normal. Some structural
damage to small residences and outside
buildings
• Category Four: Winds 131-155 mph
(210-249 kph). Storm surge generally 4-
6m above normal. External walls fail
with some complete roof failures on
small houses.
• Category Five: Winds greater than 155
mph (249 kph). Storm surge generally
greater than 6m above normal.
Complete roof failure on many
residences and industrial buildings.
Serious flooding.
Category 1 to 5 Cyclones
5
How things work Dept of Interior: Anatomy of a Hurricane
The Processes On the Earth: Simple
Southern Summer:
Cyclone Season is
December to May
The ITCZ, the wide strip of Calm
weather created by rising warm air moves
with the sun as far as 15° South (The South
Pole is 90° South).
Why were they called the ‘Horse Latitudes’.
8
• The warm settled conditions create large
amounts of evaporation which rise to become
clouds.
• As the warm moist air rises it creates an area of
low air pressure beneath it
• This why it is called a Low. (pressure area)
• As the warm wet air rises into the atmosphere
cooler air moves in to replace it - it creates wind.
• As this wind moves toward the centre of the
Low, the Earth's rotation causes it to spiral
(SPIN) in towards the Centre.
• This spiral effect is called the Coriolis Affect.
• The closer the wind gets to the Low the faster it
moves.
• As the moist air reaches the centre and rises it
condenses (cools) releasing large amounts of
(LATENT) heat energy which helps to
strengthen the Cyclone.
Processes above the Earth
9Seawater warms to 26°C
Low Pressure
The Processes On and Above the Earth
E
V
A
P
O
R
A
T
I
O
N
The difficulty with the Coriolis Effect:
even experts struggle…
10
11
Cyclone Zoe
12
The Storm Surge and its effects on a Low Island
Low
The surge can raise the sea level by several metres. Most Low islands are only a
few metres above high tide. Even if the surge is not as high as the island, high
waves – often over 5 metres can still cover the island. As well as the flood and
wind damage the sea can also poison valued fresh ground water supplies.
The Low Pressure allows the sea to
rise and appears as a large hump
many kilometres across.
A Category 5
Cyclone can raise
the sea level by 6m
13
South Pacific Cyclone
14
Tropical Cyclone Prezi
• Construct a Prezi describing the processes which
produce a Tropical Cyclone /Hurricane.
Describe the processes
which produce your
chosen Hazard.
Time of the Year
Dec- May Zoe and Ami
Sea Temperature
26.0° C
Creates evaporation
ITCZ
Moves South
following
The Sun (Season)
Creates warm calm
conditions
Low pressure
Wind
Coriolis Effect
Wind
Further Evaporation
Latent heat
Low to Cyclone
1
5
3
2
4
15
Damage caused by Tropical Cyclones.
• The high winds generated within a
cyclone can create havoc, causing large
amounts of damage to structures such as
buildings as well as crops.
• The heavy rainfall associated with a
cyclone can cause problems through
flooding damaging buildings, roads,
bridges, drainage systems and crops.
• The high winds and the heavy rainfall can
endanger peoples lives, mainly through
drowning, or through injury.
• Storm Surges can destroy structures
and drown people.
• Extensive damage can be caused to
peoples property and to Public utilities
and services.
16
17
The End.
Henry Hollis
Geography Department
Wellington High School
2004

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Tropical cyclone 2015

  • 2. Tropical Cyclones are a natural phenomena that sometimes threaten people. 2
  • 3. 3 Tropical Cyclones. Tropical Cyclones are known by many names: • Typhoons in South-East Asia • Hurricanes in the Caribbean. • Tropical Cyclones in the South West Pacific • These weather patterns are extremely dangerous to humans because in general we live on or near the coast. • In the South-West Pacific tropical cyclones regularly devastate the social and economic basis of many countries. ie Queensland after Cyclone Yasi • Most of the smaller Polynesian countries are at risk from Cyclones. Fiji Tonga or Vanuatu.
  • 4. 4 • Category One: Winds 74-95 mph (119- 153 kph). Storm surge generally 1-2m above normal. Little damage to buildings. • Category Two: Winds 96-110 mph (154-177 kph). Storm surge generally 2- 2.5m above normal. Some roofing, door, and window damage of buildings. • Category Three: Winds 111-130 mph (178-209 kph). Storm surge generally 3- 4m above normal. Some structural damage to small residences and outside buildings • Category Four: Winds 131-155 mph (210-249 kph). Storm surge generally 4- 6m above normal. External walls fail with some complete roof failures on small houses. • Category Five: Winds greater than 155 mph (249 kph). Storm surge generally greater than 6m above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Serious flooding. Category 1 to 5 Cyclones
  • 5. 5 How things work Dept of Interior: Anatomy of a Hurricane
  • 6. The Processes On the Earth: Simple Southern Summer: Cyclone Season is December to May The ITCZ, the wide strip of Calm weather created by rising warm air moves with the sun as far as 15° South (The South Pole is 90° South). Why were they called the ‘Horse Latitudes’.
  • 7. 8 • The warm settled conditions create large amounts of evaporation which rise to become clouds. • As the warm moist air rises it creates an area of low air pressure beneath it • This why it is called a Low. (pressure area) • As the warm wet air rises into the atmosphere cooler air moves in to replace it - it creates wind. • As this wind moves toward the centre of the Low, the Earth's rotation causes it to spiral (SPIN) in towards the Centre. • This spiral effect is called the Coriolis Affect. • The closer the wind gets to the Low the faster it moves. • As the moist air reaches the centre and rises it condenses (cools) releasing large amounts of (LATENT) heat energy which helps to strengthen the Cyclone. Processes above the Earth
  • 8. 9Seawater warms to 26°C Low Pressure The Processes On and Above the Earth E V A P O R A T I O N
  • 9. The difficulty with the Coriolis Effect: even experts struggle… 10
  • 11. 12 The Storm Surge and its effects on a Low Island Low The surge can raise the sea level by several metres. Most Low islands are only a few metres above high tide. Even if the surge is not as high as the island, high waves – often over 5 metres can still cover the island. As well as the flood and wind damage the sea can also poison valued fresh ground water supplies. The Low Pressure allows the sea to rise and appears as a large hump many kilometres across. A Category 5 Cyclone can raise the sea level by 6m
  • 13. 14 Tropical Cyclone Prezi • Construct a Prezi describing the processes which produce a Tropical Cyclone /Hurricane. Describe the processes which produce your chosen Hazard. Time of the Year Dec- May Zoe and Ami Sea Temperature 26.0° C Creates evaporation ITCZ Moves South following The Sun (Season) Creates warm calm conditions Low pressure Wind Coriolis Effect Wind Further Evaporation Latent heat Low to Cyclone 1 5 3 2 4
  • 14. 15 Damage caused by Tropical Cyclones. • The high winds generated within a cyclone can create havoc, causing large amounts of damage to structures such as buildings as well as crops. • The heavy rainfall associated with a cyclone can cause problems through flooding damaging buildings, roads, bridges, drainage systems and crops. • The high winds and the heavy rainfall can endanger peoples lives, mainly through drowning, or through injury. • Storm Surges can destroy structures and drown people. • Extensive damage can be caused to peoples property and to Public utilities and services.
  • 15. 16
  • 16. 17 The End. Henry Hollis Geography Department Wellington High School 2004