324 10 observational learning
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324 10 observational learning






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324 10 observational learning 324 10 observational learning Presentation Transcript

  • Human Learning Topic 9: Observational LearningCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 1 3/30/2012
  • Observational Learning Change in behavior due to the experience of observing a model Observation and classical conditioning  Confederate and observer  Confederate receives shock after a buzzer sounds (acting) – observer watches  Observer later showed conditioning to the buzzer  Eyelid conditioning  Observer watched conditioning trials – they eventually produced a CR to the CSCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 2 3/30/2012
  • Observational learning - classical Alternate explanation  Maybe watching a blink is a CS for blinking  Tone paired with the sight – now produces the blink  Might be higher order conditioningCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 3 3/30/2012
  • Observational learning - classical Monkeys reared in captivity with wild parents  Parents show fear of snakes – subjects do not  Subjects will reach across a snake for food in the same compartment  Then have them watch a parent in the presence of a snake  The subjects then show fear of snakes.CEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 4 3/30/2012
  • Observational Learning - operant Monkey learned to do a task to receive SR (pull a chain) An observer watched the model perform the task 5 times  Observers given six trials  Observers benefitted  Many responded correctly on 1st trial  75% of solutions 30s  47% in 10s  Failures were close to correctCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 5 3/30/2012
  • Observational Learning - Operant Cats solving a problem  Spin a disk to receive SR  4 Watched while one worked  Two watched for the full 30 trials  Two watched for the last 15 trials  Observers OUTPERFORMED the models  Models – 62s to solve trial 1  Observers 15 trials – 57s to solve on trial 1  Observers 30 trials – 16s to solve on trial 1CEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 6 3/30/2012
  • Imitation and generalized imitation Observer duplicates the behavior of a model Imitation of a behavior may not lead to the consequence (contingency) Must immediately follow Must look similar Model must be the Sd for the behaviorCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 7 3/30/2012
  • Generalized Imitation Generalized imitation (getting SR for imitating in general)  Baer and Sherman - Sr imitative behavior  Puppet modeled 4 behaviors (mouthing, head nodding, speaking nonsense and lever pressing)  First three when imitated resulted in positive feedback from the puppet  Imitation of the lever press was never reinforced  All imitating increased  Reinforced the general tendency to imitateCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 8 3/30/2012
  • Variables effecting observational learning Consequences of a model’s behavior  Consistency is important Consequences of the observers behavior  Learning history  Have you been reinforced for observing/imitating in the past Model characteristics influence learning  Attractive  Competent – fellow student vs. lab assistant – learned more from the assistant  Likable  PrestigiousCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 9 3/30/2012
  • other characteristics Attention getting  The eye patch  The mood Age  Young ones don’t necessarily learn more than older  Recalling what you saw (novel performances of a model)– adults were much better Survival  Polar bears and the Inuit – dangle seals  So observing (and imitating) can increase survivabilityCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 10 3/30/2012
  • Bandura Social Cognitive Theory 4 processes  Attentional  Retentional  Motor reproductive processes  Overt or covert  Motivational processes  Must be valueCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 11 3/30/2012
  • Problems with Bandura Only applies to humans  Other critters display observational learning Assumes the processes  No direct observation Cannot separate experience from motivation, etc.CEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 12 3/30/2012
  • Miller-Dollard Reinforcement history The consequence of the observer is what is important Model does a behavior Observer imitates  They are reinforced for the imitating Doesn’t explain imitating other non trained models  A case of generalizationCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 13 3/30/2012
  • Foraging Imitating behavior to find food Half and Half tubs  Some birds open them / some don’t  Group 1 - 5 trials of observation  Group 2 – 5 trials without observation (practice)  Group one opened the tubs later, group 2 did not Cats and ratsCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 14 3/30/2012
  • TV The Bobo doll experiment Rocky the selfish child experiment Crime on tv leads to crime  Strong experimental support  Hard to test in the lab  Not everyone imitates what they seeCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 15 3/30/2012