324 05.5 motivational mechanisms


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324 05.5 motivational mechanisms

  1. 1. Human Learning Topic 5.5: Motivational Mechanisms.Cedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 3/30/2012 1
  2. 2. How is behavior motivated? Two theories  Associative processes  Like Thorndike and Pavlov  Very molecular  Behavioral regulation  Skinner  Molar  Focus on function
  3. 3. A note on notation Your author’s notation S R O Respons Stimulus Outcome e What I prefer (and what you’ll see on the test)  I don’t like the O (it’s rather confusing) Sd R Sr,p+/- Respons Stimulus Stimulus e
  4. 4. Associative Structure Consistent with Thorndike and Pavlov Uses a S-R-S system (the three term contingency) But focuses on individual responses Focuses on the associations S R Sr,p+/- Respons Stimulus Stimulus e Reinforcers strengthen / punishers weaken
  5. 5. Associative Structure And the association: S Sr,p+/- Stimulus Stimulus R Respons e Connects the environment/context to a consequence Expectation motivates
  6. 6. Dual processes? Rescorla and Solomon  Two processes interact  Classical and instrumental (operant) Classical: Δ Emotional State S Sr,p+/- Stimulus Stimulus R Emotional states then motivate the response Respons e  State is determined by type of stimulus (consequence)
  7. 7. Behavioral Regulation Ties very closely with Skinner Uses a S-R-S system (the three term contingency) Focuses on the third term Not about forming associations Organisms learn limits of behavior  Redistribute activity accordingly Reinforcers are actually preferred behavior  Eating, drinking, etc
  8. 8. Premack Premack’s principle  High probability behavior will reinforce low.  Indicates that reinforcement is access to a behavior Used with schizophrenia  Used high probablity behavior (sitting) to reinforce coil stripping Used with autism  Echolalia reinforces some type of training task  Performed better than food
  9. 9. The original study Kids Candy Pinball Eating Playing Play Eating Pinball PlaySr Eating Sr Pinball
  10. 10. Response deprivation  Limit access to reinforcer (preferred activity)  Makes the reinforcer more valuable  Even works with low probability behavior  Hold a behavior at below baseline level  Access to it will now be a reinforcer
  11. 11. Behavioral Bliss Regulation theory predicts:  A preferred level of responding – stable - baseline  Engaging in TV watching  Wheel running  Eating, etc.  homework  Life isn’t all bliss  Must balance activities  REDISTRIBUTE responses to maximize bliss
  12. 12. More bliss Constraints limit our ideal level of responding  Want more TV?  Have to do more homework. Response deprivation and bliss  Restrict TV access  Turn it into a Sr for studying  To return to bliss level of TV watching – you must do more homework  It’s all about getting to bliss