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4. Respiration

4. Respiration






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    4. Respiration 4. Respiration Presentation Transcript

    • Chemistry of Respiration Unit 1 - Cell Biology SQA HIGHER BIOLOGY
    • Topic Content
      • Glycolysis.
        • The breakdown of glucose (6C) to pyruvic acid (3C) with a net production of ATP.
        • Location of process within the cytoplasm.
      • Krebs (Tricarboxylic acid, Citric acid) cycle.
        • The production of carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
      • The cytochrome system.
        • The production of ATP and water.
      • Mitochondrion structure.
      • Distinction between aerobic and anaerobic phases of respiration.
    • Introduction
      • Make molecular models to demonstrate the overall chemical reaction of respiration.
      • The large ordered molecules of glucose store a lot more energy than the small disordered 6CO 2 and 6H 2 O molecules.
      • What activities, carried out by cells, require energy?
      • Why is there a stepwise breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water?
    • Structures for models
    • Overview of Respiration
      • What are the four stages of Respiration?
      • Copy and annotate the diagram using the information from MSS 16-18.
      • Key points
        • Location
        • Carbon atoms
        • Energy
    • Mitochondrion Structure
      • Can you recall the structures of the mitochondrion?
      • What happens where?
    • Glycolysis
      • Glycolysis is the first main stage in respiration.
        • Where does it occur?
        • What are the respiratory substrates which can be used for glycolysis?
      • Glycolysis is the splitting (lysis) of glucose and does not involve oxygen.
      • Glycolysis is common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
    • Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis
      • Here are some important points:
      • In glycolysis, one molecule of glucose (6C) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3C).
      • Each reaction is catalysed by different enzymes.
      • As sugars are not very reactive, 2 molecules of ATP are used to add 2 phosphates to the 6-carbon sugar to activate it.
      • Later on in glycolysis 4 molecules of ATP are synthesised from the energy released during the reactions.
      • There is a net gain of 2 molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose broken down into pyruvate.
    • Glycolysis
      • Glycolysis is an oxidation reaction: removal of electrons and hydrogens reduce 2NAD to 2NADH 2 .
      • NAD is a coenzyme which helps dehydrogenase enzymes to catalyse redox reactions.
      • What happens to the NADH 2 ?
    • Link Reaction
      • Pyruvic acid diffuses into the matrix of the mitochondrion.
      • It is converted into a 2-carbon compound called acetyl CoA.
      • This reaction releases hydrogen which is used to reduce NAD.
    • Link Reaction
    • Krebs Cycle
      • The Krebs Cycle is also known as the Tricarboxylic Acid and the Citric Acid Cycle.
      • It is a series of reactions in which enzymes strip away electrons and H + ions from each acetyl group to reduce NAD.
      • Acetyl CoA reacts with a 4-carbon compound to form a 6-carbon compound (citric acid).
      • Citric acid is gradually converted, in a cyclic series of reactions, back to the 4-carbon compound, the carbons being lost as carbon dioxide.
    • Krebs Cycle
    • The Cytochrome System
    • The Cytochrome System
      • Hydrogens which have been removed are passed through a series of carriers and finally are received by oxygen to form water.
      • If this oxygen is not present to act as the final acceptor, the hydrogen cannot pass through the system and complete oxidation cannot take place.
      • This system of hydrogen carriers is the most important means of releasing energy in respiration.
      • Energy may be released from a few individual steps in the overall process, but that most of the energy is made available by the cytochrome system.
    • ATP Output
      • For every glucose respired, there is approximately 38 ATP molecules produced.