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Disability blindness

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  • 1. Visually Impaired ED 300 Introduction to Education Professor Lord Roger Cifuentes July 31, 2011
  • 2. Blindness
    • “ Having less than 1 ⁄ 10 of normal vision in the more efficient eye when refractive defects are fully corrected by lenses”
  • 3.
    • Sometimes if the optic nerve does not form properly, it will not send information to the brain, which can lead to blindness.
    • Blindness can also be genetic or carried through the genes.
    • Accidents can also be to blame.
    • Illnesses/diseases: diabetes, cataracts etc…but this usually occurs in older people.
    • retinoblastoma-rare cancer that occurs in children
    Optical Nerve
  • 4. Normally sighted: visual field of 180 degrees. Legally Blind: visual field of less than 20 degrees.
    • Legal blindness = vision of 20/200 or less. This means that this person sees at 20 feet that a normally sighted person can see at 200 feet. Most people can fix this with glasses. Total "visual field". This means that a person cannot see the whole object as a normally sighted person can.
  • 5. Visual Field This picture shows the normal visual field with the line through the middle. The small circle closest to the fish demonstrates the visual field for a legally blind person. The normal visual field would be able to see more of the fish.
  • 6. More Characteristics
    • Color blind= Some of the colors they see are different than what most people do.
    • Color blind students are not considered legally blind.
  • 7.
    • “ Our beliefs are important
    • because what we believe
    • affects the way we behave.
    • Our beliefs about blindness will affect how we act toward the blind children
    • with which we work,
    • our expectations for them,
    • the way we teach them,
    • the messages we give them.”
    • - Carol Castellano
  • 8. Strategies for teaching Blind Students
    • 80% of learning is through sight.
  • 9.
    • In the San Diego Unified School District Visually Impaired students are taught by being introduced to a
    • Braille letter recognition program. 
    • Following mastery of the letters, students begin with the Braille reading program that starts at level 10 through level 38. Teachers then accommodate for their students by giving them worksheets and homework in Braille. The parents of the these students are given text copies of all of
    • the work given so that they can help their children.
  • 10.
    • Understand the background of the student How much vision does the student have? How did they become blind? How long has the student been blind?
    • Technology is a good tool. There is downloadable computer software that transcribes information into Braille dots. There is also software such as text to speech and voice recognition to facilitate use of computers by blind students.
    • Teaching English to blind students
    Strategies
  • 11.
    • Use specific descriptive words:
    • always relating it to the student's body orientation,
    • not "over there", "here", "this", etc.
    • Introduce yourself, offer your arm. Tell them if they have to step up or step down, let them know if the door is to their left or right, and warn them of possible hazards.
    • Orally, let the student know if you need to move or
    • leave or need to end a conversation.
    • It is not necessary to speak loudly to people with visual impairments.
    • Do not speak of them in third person. Even if they can’t see you it doesn’t mean they can’t hear you. They are right there.
    to your LEFT to your RIGHT
  • 12. SCREEN READERS for the Blind
    • Verbally spell out new words.
    • Use an enlarged picture/directions on a chart or projector.
    • When describing something use lots of detail, especially when using visual media or other objects that are mainly visual.
    • Have hands on 3D models, raised lines on drawings especially when doing math or art.
    More Strategies
  • 13.
    • Modify instructions for auditory/tactile lessons.
    • Allow student to use a tape recorder for recording classroom information or the text.
    • Make all handouts and assignments available for VI students. i.e., regular print, large print, Braille, or on a cassette
    • Label material, supplies, and equipment with regular print, large print, and/or Braille.
  • 14. Instructional Strategies That Work (Explicit Teaching)
    • Self-monitoring
    • Reinforcement
    • Self-questioning
    • Drill & Practice
    • Strategy instruction
    • Feedback
    • Direct instruction
    • Repeated reading
    • Error correction
    • Formative evaluation
    • Peer mediation
    • Peer tutoring
    • Increased time
    • Teaching with Music
  • 15. Accomodations
    • Notetakers-people can write
    • for the student
    • Readers-either parents or other students
    • Make sure the classroom has enough lighting.
    • The classroom should be accessible for a guide dog and/or interpreter to be in the room with the student.
    • Keep expectations high.
    • Understand and respect the special skills the child will be learning, i.e. the Braille, cane, sound,
    • touch, memory, various special tools
    • and machines.
    Optacon -converts text into raised dots Braille Slate -used for writing Braille. Braille Writer -uses combination of keys to create dots on paper
  • 16. Teacher Resources
    • Any visually impaired child who is living in the United States or Canada and is between the ages of 3 and 18 is eligible for the Braille Special Collection Program through the Braille Institute that gives blind students braille books.
    • Online Resources for Teaching Blind Students http://www.uni.edu/walsh/blindresources.html
    • Access It-The National Center on Accessible Information Technology in Education
    • http://www.washington.edu/accessit/
  • 17. Resources
    • BBC http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/teaching-english-blind-students
    • Submitted by TE Editor on 21 June, 2004 - 13:00
    • Hardy, Wendy –Bay Park Elementary (SDUSD)
    • http://www.sandi.net/693420101811310963/blank/browse.asp?A=383&BMDRN=2000&BCOB=0&C=76305
    • Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13 (4) American Foundation for the Blind
    • http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=189&DocumentID=3152
    • http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/blindness
    • Monroe county women’s disability network
    • http:// www.mcwdn.org/Blind/WhatIsBlindness.html
    • The Blind Child In The Regular Elementary Classroom by Carol Castellano http://www.nfb.org/images/nfb/Publications/fr/fr15/Issue3/f150302.html
  • 18.