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Visually impaired as a design challenge


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Visually impaired as a design challenge

  1. 1. VISUALLY IMPAIRED AS A DESIGN CHALLENGE Design Considerations & Practical solutions
  2. 2. The problem lies in our point of view
  3. 3. Content List Overview Design Considerations Design Ideas & Practical solutions Case Studies
  4. 4. Overview
  5. 5. Overview  Problem Statement (until June 2012): 285 million people are visually impaired worldwide: 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision. About 90% of the world's visually impaired live in Visually Impaire d 4% Other 96% Blind 14% Low Vision 86%
  6. 6. Overview  Definition: are a people who suffer from a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with conventional means , such as refractive correction or medication and reduces a person's ability to function at certain or all tasks.
  7. 7. Overview  Measurement Standards: Eye care professionals measures vision according to 2 main Standards: Measureme nt Standards Vision Clarity Snellen chart Visual Field Degree
  8. 8. Overview 1. Vision Clarity: indicates how well a person's central visual status is.
  9. 9. Visually Impaired - Overview  Snellen chart: Vision Clarity is normally measured using a Snellen chart. It has letters of different sizes that are read, one eye at a time, from a distance of 20 ft. People with normal vision are able to read the 20 ft line at 20 ft (20/20 vision).
  10. 10. Overview 2. Visual Field: indicates how a person's entire area of vision range is.
  11. 11. Overview  Degree: Visual Field is normally measured in terms of degrees from the center. People with normal vision are able to to see: - 95° towards the ear from the center. - 60° towards the nose from the center. - 60° above from the center. - 75° below from the center. Central Visual Field (30°) Fixed Eyes Visual Field (120°)
  12. 12. Overview  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Symptoms: Inability of the person to see objects as clearly as a healthy person. Inability of the person to see as wide an area as the healthy person without moving the eyes or turning the head. Inability to look at light (Photophobia). Double vision (Diplopia). Visual distortion. Visual perceptual difficulties. Any combination of the above
  13. 13. Overview  Categorization: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines impaired vision in 5 categories: is a best corrected visual acuity of 20/70. • Low vision 1: 1 2 3 4 5 • Low vision 2: starts at 20/200. • Blindness 3: is below 20/400 or visual field between 5° and 10°. • Blindness 4: is worse than 5/300 or visual field less than 5°. • Blindness 5: is no light perception at all.
  14. 14. Design Considerations
  15. 15. Design Considerations  In relation to the to design considerations Visually impaired people are divided into 2 categories: Visually impaired Low vision people: when they use buildings, rely quite entirely on their ability to see. Blind people: when they use buildings rely entirely on other senses, ie. touch, hearing, smell and touch.
  16. 16. Design Considerations  Design considerations for Visually impaired people include the following elements of built environments: Built Environment Lighting Colour Texture Acousti c Smell Legibility
  17. 17. Design Considerations  Lighting: Adequate lighting is the single most important aid to vision.  The lighting needs of persons who are visually impaired vary according to the individual and their particular eye condition. 
  18. 18. Design Considerations  The 3 principle light sources are : light sources Natural Incandesce nt Florescen t - Each source has their own attributes and weakness when considering lighting situations for persons who are partially sighted.
  19. 19. Design Considerations  The key for the designer is to utilize these light sources optimally and considering the following:
  20. 20. Design Considerations 1. Avoid glare and reflection, which are often caused by shinny or glossy surfaces.
  21. 21. Design Considerations 2. Place light sources in locations to avoid creating shadows. Shadows can create optical illusions.
  22. 22. Design Considerations 3. Distribute light levels throughout different spaces as many people have difficulty adjusting to fluctuations in light
  23. 23. Design Considerations 4. Include task and spot lighting to augment the overall lighting system.
  24. 24. Design Considerations 5. Use of dimmer switches allows light levels to be adjusted to suit the unique needs of users..
  25. 25. Design Considerations  Colour: The key for the designer is to utilize the contrast colours optimally and considering the following:
  26. 26. Design Considerations 1. A colour contrast of 70% is generally accepted in many countries as the preferred amount to define items.
  27. 27. Design Considerations 2. Colours to avoid using together include: red/black, yellow/grey, yellow/white, red/green, black/violet and blue/green.
  28. 28. Design Considerations 3. Be consistent in use of colour to convey messages.
  29. 29. Design Considerations 4. Limit use of colour and keep colour schemes simple and avoid large-scale patterns. Keeping in mind that too many Colours used in design can create confusion.
  30. 30. Design Considerations  Texture: Texture can assist in providing orientation clues about a space. The key for the designer is to utilize the Texture optimally and considering the following:
  31. 31. Design Considerations 1. Using materials easily identified in terms of texture.
  32. 32. Design Considerations 2. Using detectable warning surfaces which have a texture that can be felt under foot or detected by a person using a long cane to alerts a person who is
  33. 33. Design Considerations 3. Using tactile signs.
  34. 34. Design Considerations  Acoustics: Sounds can assist in providing orientation clues about a space. The key for the designer is to utilize the Acoustics optimally and considering the following:
  35. 35. Design Considerations 1. Providing different reverberation especially for floors so visually impaired can obtain a feel of the space.
  36. 36. Design Considerations 2. Provide acoustically well-defined position items such as escalators, fountains, and elevators to create
  37. 37. Design Considerations 3. Avoid noise sources from mask sounds intended to provide directional cues.
  38. 38. Design Considerations  Smell: Smells can assist in defining a space for visually impaired. Smell may be natural or artificial.
  39. 39. Design Considerations  Legibility: its refers to the degree to which building is understandable or recognizable. The key for the designer is to making the building easy to understand and considering the following:
  40. 40. Design Considerations 1. Clear and easily understandable floor plan.
  41. 41. Design Considerations 2. Continuity in the path and completely free of any
  42. 42. Design Considerations 3. Using readily comprehensible graphic symbols.
  43. 43. Design Ideas
  44. 44. Design Ideas Ideas recognized by feet Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound & Smell Ideas Recognized by contrast colors Ideas Recognized by borders Visual impaired facilities
  45. 45. Design Ideas linear units to determine the route. Used in a metro’s stations Ideas Recognized By Feet
  46. 46. Design Ideas The round units to give warning at the end of the pavement so as not to overcome. Ideas Recognized By Feet
  47. 47. Design Ideas Also to alert people with visual impairments of their approach to streets and hazardous drop-offs Ideas Recognized By Feet
  48. 48. Design Ideas Different texture floors at the crossing to give the necessary guidance and known to the right way Ideas Recognized By Feet
  49. 49. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  50. 50. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  51. 51. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  52. 52. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  53. 53. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  54. 54. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  55. 55. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  56. 56. Design Ideas Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  57. 57. Design Ideas The wall is laid with different textures and in different configurations. Fragrant, richly textured plants also invite touching and smelling. They cascade over the wall and grow in easily reached niches Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  58. 58. Design Ideas The label gives the visually impaired an access to the information of the plant Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  59. 59. Design Ideas richly textured plants also invite touching and smelling. Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  60. 60. Design Ideas Visually impaired visitors are able to detect changes in air temperature and humidity from the water wall. Ideas Recognized by Touch, Sound &
  61. 61. Design Ideas linear units with contrast colors to determine the route for visual impared . Ideas Recognized By contrast colors
  62. 62. Design Ideas Contrast colors at the pavement for visual impaired . Ideas Recognized By contrast colors
  63. 63. Design Ideas Handrails at the both sides for blind people. Ideas Recognized by Borders
  64. 64. Design Ideas borders with a low kerbs Ideas Recognized by Borders
  65. 65. Design Ideas Traffic light aid for the blind Visual Impaired Aids & Facilities
  66. 66. Design Ideas Visual Impaired Aids & Facilities
  67. 67. Design Ideas Visual Impaired Aids & Facilities
  68. 68. Design Ideas small camera linked to powerful wearable computer. It sees what you see and through your finger-pointing understands what information you seek Visual Impaired Aids & Facilities
  69. 69. Case Studies
  70. 70. Anchor Center for Blind Children Denver, Colorado
  71. 71. In plan, the building is a succession of three "pods" connected by a linear hallway. The pods "Blue," "Yellow" and "Red" — play off the themes of mind, body and spirit and house the various classrooms and activity spaces, as well as spaces for staff, teachers and parents Concept
  72. 72.   The poetry of this building comes from designing an environment where you enrich the experience by embracing as many senses as possible. The 15,600-square-foot building (named for a longtime supporter) and surrounding two-acre campus incorporate learning experiences at every turn, through light, sound, touch, smell — and even taste Form
  73. 73.  form three classroom pods connected by a central circulation spine are flooded in diffused light through a series of filtered clerestory windows just below the angled roofline.
  74. 74. entrance, pavement scoring draws wheelchair users toward the front door, and a subtle Braille-like motif enlivens the exterior brickwork. The gate at right opens into the Sensory Garden Entrance
  75. 75. High ceilings and skylights bring in light, and clerestory lights in the hallway's pod entry ones are correspondingly tinted blue, yellow and red. Along the side wall, a Trail Rail and Light Walk provide additional way finding. 
  76. 76. Through specific wall placements and flooring selections carpet, rubber and hard-surface materials all the classrooms are acoustically engineered to minimize noise and give directional sound cues. Benjamin's Niche, a classroom for children with both vision and hearing loss, is the only one with a wood floor it resonates, allowing the children to "feel" the sound.
  77. 77. Color and contrast are integral to the design. In the Motor Room, vertical punctures of tinted glass and sunlight invite children to play within child-sized cubbies. Photograph by Ron Pollard Light
  78. 78. their realization that the project was all about light, not darkness, "Because the children have varying degrees of vision impairment, some can distinguish light and dark, as well as colors. So contrast and color play an important role in the design Light
  79. 79. Sound, touch and light cues help children navigate the Grand Hallway. At the entrance to each pod, hardwood flooring gives way to tile, so children not only feel the texture change, but hear the sound change as their canes and footsteps resonate on the different surfaces. Acoustic baffles are also strategically suspended from the ceiling
  80. 80. Anchor Center for Blind Children incorporates sensory cues inside and out to help visually impaired children engage with and learn about the world around them..
  81. 81. The Sensory Garden, located to the right of the entrance, is a feast for the senses. It features meandering pathways, a dry streambed with a small bridge, varying surface textures, bench seating, and native plantings selected for their texture, scent and color. "It's fairly sturdy stuff, so the kids can touch it and pull on it," An interactive fountain feature allows children to rearrange its stones, feeling their smoothness and changing the sound of the falling water. A slatted cedar fence surrounding the garden offers another tactile experience, with different-size pickets that play with light and shadow and change pitch when canes are run across them Garden : Sculpture for the garden. created three interactive, kid-size bronze sculptures modeled . All elements on the sculptures, from a book with a readable Braille surface to the differently shaped buttons on a girl's blouse, are meant to encourage exploration through touch
  82. 82. Hazelwood School Location: Glasgow, Scotland Design Team: Gordon Murray and Alan Dunlop Age (student): (3-18) years
  83. 83. The distinctive curving interior spine meets the complex demands for an intuitive way finding system the curved form of the building reduces the visual scale of the main circulation spaces and helps remove the institutional feel that a single long corridor might create circulation
  84. 84. The focus-learning rooms offer viewing for staff and visitors without disturbing the children. These areas also offer quiet time as needed Focus room
  85. 85. Classrooms are oriented north facing to take advantage of a more even level of light and open onto the quietist part of the grounds, the classroom garden spaces Large classrooms with ample storage space and adaptable areas between the classrooms The design of the games hall, hydrotherapy pool created opportunities for children to explore, extend their skill &gain confidence through engagement in relatively independent activity. Hydrotherapy pool
  86. 86. Life skills house A separate residential unit, is used to teach the children basic life skills but also provides respite accommodation.
  87. 87. The playground and playground furnishings enable children the freedom to play and take risks at their own level Mature trees, walkways, and a play yard with wooden climbing structures and swings create a park-like setting for the school grounds. playground
  88. 88. High-level windows are used as some of the students with visual impairments can be easily distracted by (movements/activities occurring outside.)
  89. 89. The external structure and the cladding were all considered in terms of sensory stimulation. The structural glulam* timber frame casts shadows within the building to establish a clear pattern along the internal street of the school Materials used -zinc on the roof -timber -brick -glass
  90. 90. The “trail rail” wall The unique sensory trail wall weaves throughout the school and enables children to practice mobility and orientation skills, which lead to increased confidence, sense of mastery, and selfesteem. The trail rail wall is clad in cork, which has a warm feel and provides signifiers or tactile cues to assist children with orientation and navigation through the school
  91. 91. The defining component of the interior design is the cork-clad ‘trail wall’ that meets navigation needs on one side and the extensive needs for storage on the opposite side. It runs the length of the building and enables children to navigate independently Each bay of sensory trail wall is individually shaped. This helps children orient along the length of the circulation space in the school Within two weeks of exposure to the trail wall system, they were successfully moving around the building independently.
  92. 92. Corridors are designed as streets, which also assist with orientation and mobility
  93. 93. Educational Method The school evaluates pupils' skills & likes but focuses particularly on English Language & communication and mathematics
  94. 94. Royal Academy for the visually disabled people Location: Tabarbour- Amman
  95. 95. The concept of the project: Engineering design philosophy of the Royal Academy for the visually disabled people Visually impaired people, in their movements, depend on what is called Spatial Mental Map Design. Such requires easy simple design of construction, especially; in making clear lines for main movements and functional separation in divisions/departments. This is to draw a spatial map for such building in their minds; thus, it will be easy for them to move easily, safely and independently. -
  96. 96. Circulation The building takes the (L) shape so the circulation is linear and straight Entrance Ground floor
  97. 97. the Lighting in the school The school has a skylight which gives a blue light (strong blue light and from my readings this light bothers blind people and is not comforting them so it’s one of the disadvantages of this school
  98. 98. Building Way finding for the blind 1-The handrail along the corridors and the stairs
  99. 99. 2-On the handrail of the stairs there is a circle to tell them which the floor they are
  100. 100. 3-Also there is a circle on the wall in different shape ,to tell them (the num of the floor)
  101. 101. 4-There is Contrast between the wall and the doors, but the Doorknob is not legible because its with the same color 5-but it’s not clear enough in the stairs even the texture is not enough for preventing people from glide, and the floors soft
  102. 102. 6-The titles of every space or room very legible for the visually impairment or for the blind, because it’s wrote by Braille and there is a simple drawing logo for each title expresses the function of the room and they can recognize it by touching that logo
  103. 103. The gym on the Basement floor beside the Fitness and warm water therapy The floor made of the rubber ,but there is a high echo in the gym warm water therapy
  104. 104. The library Plugs under ground for the computers
  105. 105. It's a room for visually impairments which still have sight and can read but only large letters. This room strengths their sights and the room is colored by black for reading easily Playing field
  106. 106. The corridors are wide but becomes narrow in the kindergarten section kindergarten
  107. 107. these seats are located in the garden of the school and they were put to close the void behind it; but I found that it's not safe for blind students and the slope of the location is very high around 15m
  108. 108. they are learning computer programs on a special system made specifically for the blinds, even the keyboard has numbers and letters in Braille The titles of the rooms wrote in Braille
  109. 109. The bottoms of elevator wrote in Braille