Autism Spectrum Disorders


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April was Autism Awareness month, so we put together a guide for teachers and behavior health staff that defines autism spectrum disorders, their diagnostic criteria and educational accommodations for lesson planning and teaching strategies.

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  • NRC= national research councilThis is only for children 8 and younger
  • NRC= national research councilThis is only for children 8 and younger
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders

    1. 1. Autism Spectrum Disorders + the classroom by: Racheal Campbell + Ryan Benetz
    2. 2. • The Autism Awareness Ribbon The puzzle pattern of this ribbon reflects the mystery and complexity of autism. The different colors and shapes represent the diversity of people and families living with this disorder. The brightness of the ribbon signals hope – hope through research and increasing awareness.
    3. 3. • Education, Inc. + Autism As a leader in providing K-12 education programs for patients in hospitals, home bound programs and behavioral health centers, it is our mission to educate all students regardless of their situation. In 2013, we were able to educate and provide support for 13,364 students. Based on the statistic that 1 in 68 children are autistic, we can roughly estimate that over 190 of our students were autistic. We hope to add to the ribbon’s brightness, the hope, by raising awareness for ASD and autism in the classroom.
    4. 4. • AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What are Autism Spectrum Disorders? ASD Definition Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger Autism The Facts AUTISM + DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA What are the diagnostic criteria for autism? Early signs of Autism Characteristics Prevalence Causes Vaccines and Autism AUTISM + THE CLASSROOM What can we do as teachers? Research Programs Curriculum of Programs Recommendations for Education Intervention Accommodations in the Lesson Plans Accommodations in the Classroom Teaching Strategies Assessment Practices Presentation Overview I. III. II.
    5. 5. • What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?
    6. 6. • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) definition: Disorders that are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in: 1. communication, 2. social interactions, 3. repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Persons who display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than three years of age.
    7. 7. • What are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Autism Spectrum Disorders, also known as pervasive development disorders (or atypical autism) includes: Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger Syndrome Autism
    8. 8. •
    9. 9. • Rett Syndrome Normal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities. This is the only ASD that is more common in females than males and it is very rare.
    10. 10. • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Normal development for at least two, and up to ten years, followed by significant loss of skills. Much more prevalent in males.
    11. 11. • Aspergers Similar to mild autism, but without significant impairments in cognition and language.
    12. 12. • Autism (definition from IDEA) A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has serious emotional disturbance.
    13. 13. • Autism: the facts Approximately 1 in 68 children are diagnosed with autism. Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great increase in the number of diagnosed cases, and is currently increasing 10-17%, annually. Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S., currently affecting more than 2 million individuals. Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD, when if fact they have autism. Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls *APPROXIMATELY 5 TIMES MORE LIKELY
    14. 14. • Autism: the facts continued Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those with ASD Autism is more prevalent in those with other developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Developmental Cognitive De- layed, or Tuberculosis. Autism can cost a family an average of $60,000 per year. Autism receives less than 5% of the research funding of many less prevalent childhood diseases.
    15. 15. • What are the diagnostic criteria for autism?
    16. 16. • Early Signs of Autism: 6 months : 9 months : 12 months : 16 months : 24 months : No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions No back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc No consistent response to his/her name, babbling, back and forth gestures, such as pointing showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze. No words No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation or repeating)
    17. 17. • Autism: characteristics Impaired social interaction Picked up/cuddled Smile/laugh Objects vs. people Impaired communication 50% thought to be mute Robotic, parroting or reverse pronouns
    18. 18. • Autism: characteristics continued Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior Twirling, flapping of hands, rocking Restricted range of interest Impaired cognition Remember location in space rather than concept comprehension ie. “shopping” Autistic savant: splinter skills: ie. Rain Man
    19. 19. • Autism: characteristics continued Abnormal Sensory Perceptions Hyperresponsive or hyporresponsive Synaesthesia: the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive system results in the stimulation of another
    20. 20. • Autism is the most prevalent of the ASD’s and the second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less severe form and/or later onset.
    21. 21. • Causes of Autism Neurological No single, known cause Genetic Problems Depending on the gene, a child may be more susceptible to the disorder Can affect the way brain cells communicate Can affect the severity of the symptoms
    22. 22. • Causes of Autism Environmental Problems Causes many other health problems Exploring whether or not trigger autism: ie. air pollutants and viral infections
    23. 23. • Vaccines and Autism No reliable study has shown a link between the MMR vaccine and autism.
    24. 24. • What can we do as teachers?
    25. 25. • Research Programs Research does not tell us which types of intervention work best for different children Decisions made by the team based on needs of individual child A variety of resources and agencies must collaborate to develop comprehensive programs based on each child’s needs
    26. 26. • Curriculum of Programs The program should teach the child: Ability to attend Imitate others Comprehend and use language Play appropriately with toys Socially interact with others
    27. 27. • Recommendations for Education Intervention: Immediate enrollment into intervention programs immediately after diagnosis Active participation in intensive programming for a minimum of 25 hours per week Planned and repeated teaching opportunities in various settings At least 1 adult for every 2 young children Parent training Ongoing assessment and evaluation
    28. 28. • Accommodations in the Lesson Plans + Sessions 1. Choose or make materials with clear, visual completion criteria. 2. Tasks that have visually clear instructions. 3. Provide students with visual aids for lectures. 4. Prepare students for transitions. 5. Use the student’s interests in lesson planning. 6. Use clear, concise language. 7. Modeling.
    29. 29. • Accommodations in the Lesson Plans + Sessions 8. Incorporate the strengths of students with autism in your lessons. 9. If student has difficulty with handwriting, for some assignments, allow alternative ways to respond. 10. Reinforce positive behavior.
    30. 30. • Accommodations in the Classroom 1. Close proximity to teacher/teacher’s assistant. 2. Procedures to keep noise levels acceptable. 3. Private location w/o distractions for test taking. 4. Eliminate clutter. 5. Present instructions orally and written. 6. Frequent clarifications/reminders . 7. Refer to agendas.
    31. 31. • Accommodations in the Classroom 8. Work is organized into manageable ‘chunks’. 9. Classroom expectations clear and understood, as well as consequences for misbehavior. 10. Extra assistance is provided as needed.
    32. 32. • Teaching Strategies Direct Instruction Behavior Management Find ways to support positive behaviors rather than punish negative behaviors Instruction in Natural Settings– settings and interactions that non-disabled children enjoy Teaching one-on-one or in small groups
    33. 33. • Assessment Practices Testing accommodations vary on case to case basis Extended time and small-group of individual administration are common accommodations
    34. 34. • Thank you for reading! We would not be successful without the right teachers, and their desire for professional development. As our teachers develop, so do our students. As an ongoing effort we encourage our staff to develop training presentations like the one you are viewing here on Autism Spectrum Disorders. If our development can help our clients and fans develop as well, then we are helping those kids that need it. Please use this presentation as a training tool, and share it with those people that care for kids on the spectrum. Enjoy! Ryan Benetz email: office: 508.732.9101
    35. 35. • The best thing about Education, Inc. is their individualized attention to the needs of every child. The teacher(s) from Education, Inc. are warm, flexible, and open to learning about children who have highly specialized academic and emotional needs. — Rachel Busman, PsyD; Clinical Psychologist & Program Director of Adolescent Inpatient Services at Westchester Medical Center
    36. 36. • APA Works Cited: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information. (2013, December 1). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (1120). Exceptional learners: an introduction to special education (12th ed., International ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education Nicole, C. (2007, January 1). Positively Autism ~ Lesson Modifications and Accommodations ~ November, 2007. Positively Autism ~ Lesson Modifications and Accommodations ~ November, 2007. Retrieved February 01, 2014, from sue10/index.html Promoting Social Development for Students with Autism; Social Skills for Students with Autism. (n.d.). TeacherVision. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from Ruble, L., & Akshoomoff, N. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Intervention Options for Parents and Educators. National Association of School Psychologists , 38, 1-6. Staff, M. (2012, October 6). Autism. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from TION=causes  Teaching Autism Students in Inclusive Classrooms. (n.d.). Teaching Autism Students in Inclusive Classrooms. Retrieved February 1, 2014, from  What Is Autism?. (2014, January 1). Autism Speaks. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from