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Approaches to Develop Curriculum for Children Visual Impairment


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Approaches to Develop Curriculum for Children Visual Impairment

  1. 1. AAKANKSHA, Lions School for the Mentally Handicapped, Avanti Vihar, Raipur REHABILITATION COUNCIL OF INDIA New Delhi
  2. 2. Rajnish Kumar Arya Consultant Special & Inclusive Education, Raipur
  3. 3. . Overview . Understanding of Visual Impairment . Identification & Assessment of CWVI . Aids & Appliences used in Teaching . Approches to Develop Curriculum/ Curricular Adaptation
  4. 4.  "Inclusion," "full inclusion" and "inclusive education" are terms which recently have been narrowly defined by some (primarily educators of students with severe disabilities) to espouse the philosophy that ALL students with disabilities, regardless of the nature or the severity of their disability, receive their TOTAL education within the regular education environment (AFB)
  5. 5.   The right to inclusive education is a civil right that nurtures appropriate social development. Inclusive education provides children with special needs the oppourtunity to learn in an environment that offers them the oppourtunity for friendships and role models For children without special needs it is the opportunity to learn about, and be accepting of defferences, and learning to be sensitive to need of others. (Barua,
  6. 6.  Today a large percentage of students visual disabilties spend over percent of their school in general eduction classrooms. Nearly percent of low vision and blind students receive their education at a neighborhood school, possibly with the support from a resource specialist or itinerent teacher. (OSEP,
  7. 7.  A policy of inclusion needs to be implemented in all schools and throughout our education system. The participation of all children needs to be ensured in all spheres of their life in and outside the school. Schools need to become centers that prepare children for life and ensure that all children, especially the differently abled…. (Arya,
  8. 8.   It is used to describe any kind of vision loss, ranging from someone having no sight at all to someone who has partial vision loss In other word, It is a umberala term which includes both children who are blind or those having low vision
  9. 9.    According to the PWD Act , it referes to a condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions Total Absence of sight; or Visual acuity not exceeding / or snellen in the better eye with correcting lenses it requires them to stand meter or 20 feet from an object to see it as well as someone with perfect vision who could see it meter or 200 feet away) or Limitations of the filed of vision subtending an angle of degrees or worse
  10. 10.  The PWD Act means a person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or excution of a task with appropriate assistive device
  11. 11. But this defination of PWD Act 1995, is not clear
  12. 12.  “A person with low vision is one who has impairment of visual functioning even after treatment and/or standard refrective correction and has a visual acuity of less than / to light perception or a visual field less than degrees”. (WHO,
  13. 13. may be continually swollen or red  cloudy film  may be unusually sensitive to light  may be crossed  may exhibit a lack of coordination in directing the gaze of the two eye  may shake or move  eyes are not able to follow parent‟s face  pupils are excessively large or small  eyes do not appear to be evenly lined up, they cross or turn inward  may wander randomly 
  14. 14.  that s/he experiences dizziness, headaches or nausea following close work  that s/he cannot see well or that s/he has blurred or double vision  that her his eyes itch or burn
  15. 15.       does not appear to focus with central vision frequent rubbing of the eyes excessive frowning, shutting of one eye, or attempting to brush away a blur squinting or contorting face in attempts to see distant things clearly excessive blinking; tilting head forward or sideways when looking at near or distant objects holding books or objects very close to eyes or far from eyes
  16. 16. making frequent changes in distance at which book is held  stumbles over small objects; runs into obstacles  fatigue or restlessness following limited schoolwork  non-participation or dislike of games requiring distance vision  poking of eyes  cover or closes eyes when looking at detail 
  17. 17.         difficulty with reading or other work requiring close use of the eyes difficulty or inattentiveness during chalkboard, wall-chart, or map lessons withdrawal; non-participation in group activities tendency to lose place on page while reading difficulty copying from the board inability to finish homework in a timely manner difficulty with copying from the board inability to finish homework in a timely manner
  18. 18.  Mild Visual Impairment Acuities ranging from 20/70 to 20/80 (both eyes)  Moderate Visual Impairment Acuities ranging from 20/100 to 20/200 and/or field loss of more than 40%
  19. 19.  Severe Visual Impairment Acuities ranging from 20/400 to 20/600 and/or field loss of more than 60%  Profound Visual Impairment Acuities ranging from 20/800 to light perception to total blindness and/or field loss of 80%
  20. 20. Limited oppourtunities for incidental learning  Limitatin in the range and variety of experiences  Limitations in the ability to get around and interacting with the environment  Limitations in interactions with the environment 
  21. 21.  Braille interliner/ Braille Wooden Slate  Braille Frame/ German Slate  Styllus / Pen  Pocket Frame
  22. 22.  Taylor Frame  Abacus  Talking Calculator  Number Board  Braille Clock  Spur Wheel  Geometrical Shapes/ Figure
  23. 23.  Raised Relief Plastic Maps  Relief Globes  Braille Atlas
  24. 24.  Three Dimensional Relief Plastic Charts Raised
  25. 25.  It is an upward writing machine for writing on one side of the paper, enabling the Braille to be read as it is written. This machine can be compared to a normal tyewriter with a major difference that it has only nine keys, three for paper setting and six for the embossing, the brailler embosses combinations of six dots in a Braille cell
  26. 26.  The material recorded on cassettes/CDs has emerged to be the most popular mode of imparting education to visually impaired persons. As Braille books are very heavy and many newly blind persons are not able to learn Braille easily, talking books are emerging to be the most viable alternative. For listening to the talking books, the conventional cassette player with the compact cassettes with a playing time of either 60 or 90 minutes is generally used
  27. 27.  Black Pens / Black Felt Pens  Exercise Book/ Note Books with thicker lines of good contrast e.g. black  Writing Stand
  28. 28.  Reading Slit/ Typoscope  Hand and Stand Magnifieres According to need of the Child  Reading Stand
  29. 29. Large Print Books Talking Books Telescope
  30. 30.  It is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive , organization sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students and the content knowledge we want students to acquire..
  31. 31.  According to G. Hass “The curriculum is all of the experiences that individual learners have in a programme of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which are planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and professional practice.”
  32. 32.  In India schools are governed by several boards of education. Apart from national boards, such as the CBSE and ICSE, there are several others with smaller jurisdication- such as those at the state level, in case of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh Shiksha Mandal, Raipur). Each one of thesse boards prescribes a curriculum that is given to schools to follow. (Kapur,
  33. 33.   The adaptation should not change the original concept of the curriculum used because the objective of adaptation is to provide the some learning experiences to both normal and CWVI For providing same experiences, compensatory activities should be planned in such a way that the child gets a wholistic picture of the concept taught in the regular classes. The objective of the instructional materail should remain same for both normal and CWVI
  34. 34.    Modification in the instructional material should not distrub the majority of normal children in IED classes The adaptation in instructional material and methods is done in the light of the educational needs of disabled child studying in the IED class A possible stratgey of adjustment in the instructional material can be outline the proposed teaching and learning points, analysising the needs and type of adjustments at various level, prepration of supportive materials and planning of group atcivities
  35. 35. More auditory and tactile aids should be given to compensate for visual deficits  More verbal cues should be provided while explanning the cooncept in class  Three dimensional teaching and learning aids should be providd ti the children to provide a whole experience of the concept 
  36. 36.    The management of the class should be determined in the light of child‟s limitation A multisensory approach should be used to provide complete learning experience to the child The teacher should take care of words in instruction like „see‟, „look‟ etc. and at the time of use of these word a special attention may be given to the CWVI e.g. By calling the name of any CWVI, deal the point or facts as well as provide the tectile TLM to him/ her
  37. 37.  Basically based on MODES  Modefication  Omission  Duplication  Substitution
  38. 38.    The student with Visual Impairment should be provided language book in Braille, or enlarged print along wiht the tape recorded version Most of the teachers use oral-aural method of teaching. Some of them write on the blackboard which may pose difficulties. The teachers should be encouraged to speak while writing The teahers should also inform the students regarding the text being used in the next few days so that s/he can bring only the required text to classroom as the Braille Books are bulky and the students need to read and write
  39. 39.    Non-verbal content which includes pictures, maps, globes, diagrams etc. may pose problems. It can be taught by using supplementary material in Braille, Tectile Aids, and verbal discriptions of the graphic material The Visually Impaired Students can be included in all activities like disscussions, stories, singing, actual visits to palces etc Some concepts need to be explained more in deatil because of lack of experience
  40. 40.    The students with Visual Impairment would not face any problem with the verbal content The Geography mostly and History partially relies on maps and globes. These textbooks may contain graphs, diagrams,and tables that related relevant data It is important that The students with Visual Impairment must be given the concept of Maps from an early age
  41. 41.     Braille Books are not available and also depend upon a different Brailled Code which again causes difficulty In addition to Textbooks, educational aids are important for learning mathematics Oral Mathematics need to be practiced and use of calculaotr with speech outputs, enlarged displays is helpful Teachers should give only representaional samples of home works and very long assingments as the child may required a long time to do the computational work
  42. 42.  Children with Visual Impairment need to be taught using the multisensory approach that involves all modalities other than vision
  43. 43.    A.F.B. () The American Foundation for the Blind's Josephine L. Taylor Leadership Institute, Education Work Group &Se ctionID= &TopicID= &DocumentID= Arya, R. K. (2013) Education of Children with Special Needs: A Critical Analysis with Special Reference in Chhattisgarh State of India published in Europena Academic Research in Volume: I Issue : VI September, 2013 pdf pp Barua, M. (2013) Curricular Adaptation for Children with Autism, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Confluence, Inclusive Education, August 2013, Vol.14
  44. 44.     Bhushan, P.; Rawal, N Visual Impairment Hand Book Ahmeddabad: Blind People Association (India) Govt. of India (1996) The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (No. 1 of 1996), Ministry of Law, Justice & Company Affairs New Delhi: The Gazette of India Julka, A Curricular Adaptaion for Visually Impaired Children Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Confluence, Inclusive Education, August , Vol Kapur, A Transforming Schools Empowering Children, New Delhi: Sage Publications
  45. 45. A Teacher‟s Handbook Children with Special  Sharma, P. L  National Council Eductional Research & Training Smith, D. D. & Tyler; N. C   on IED Helping Needs, New Delhi: of Introduction to Special Education Making a Difference Ohio: Merrill Students With Visual Impairment: A Hand Book, North Carolina Dept. Of Public Instruction World Health Organization (1992) Management of Low Vision in Children