In cartography, a contour
line (often just called a
"contour") joins points of
equal elevation (height)
above a given level, such as mean sea level. A contour map
shows valleys and hills, and the steepness of slopes.
The contour interval of a contour map is the difference
in elevation between successive contour lines.
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the
first stage of compulsory education known as primary or
In the classroom, spoken language is the primary medium
through which teachers teach and children learn. Language
development is accepted as being critical to cognitive
development and learning itself is seen by many as a social
› Central Board Of Secondary Education (CBSE) grants affiliation to various
category of schools in accordance with its affiliation Bye-laws. The chapter-2 of
affiliation Bye-laws, prescribe the following with regard to minimum
infrastructure requirement in school.
› The school must have about 2 acres or as otherwise permitted measurement of
land and a building constructed on a part of land and proper playground on the
› The land should be owned by the schools or the society which is running the
school. If the land is taken on lease it should be for a minimum period of 30 yrs.
› The institution should have proper facilities commensurate with its
requirement and should provide minimum floor space of 1 sq,mtr per student
in the class
Every institute will also provide proper facilities for physically
The school should have the needed equipment and faculties for
science, home science, technical subjects, vocations subjects etc.
The school should scrupulously observe prescription from the
local authority regarding safety, safe drinking water and
The school should have at least 1 computer lab with minimum of 10
computers or computer students ratio of 1:20 and internet connection.
The school should have a well equipped and spacious library with
minimum of 1500 books and at least 15 magazines. Also, the school
should maintain pupil book ratio 1:5
BASIC PHYSICAL FACILITIES IN THE SCHOOL
o Class room should be of adequate size and minimum floor space
should at least be 1 sq metre. Per student.
o Prescription from the concerned municipal authority regarding
drinking water and fire safety precautions should be observed in school.
A fresh certificate regarding fulfilment of sanitary conditions and
water/fire safety requirements should be obtained and submitted to the
board every 5 years.
o Adequate facilities should be provided for recreation activities and
physical education as well as for conduct of various activities and
programmes for the social, cultural, physical and moral development of
students and for safeguarding their health.
o In addition to the basic requirements the institution should have other
facilities commensurate with its requirements. It should satisfy the
minimum conditions laid down by the Board for school building.
Classrooms should be adequate in size. The minimum floor space should
be at least 1 sq metre per student.
o every institution will provide proper facilities like ramps and toilets for
wheel chair users .
o The school should have suitable furniture in the classroom and office
equipment and furniture commensurate with the strength of students and
o The school should have the needed equipment and facilities for
sciences, home science, technical subjects, vocational subjects and various
activities under work experience and art education.
o The school should scrupulously observe prescription from the
municipal authority regarding drinking water and fire safety
precautions in the school. A certification from the municipal/fire
authorities regarding sanitary conditions and water/fire safety
should be submitted along with the application.
o The school should have adequate facilities for providing
recreation activities .
o Adequate ground to carry out various activities.
oA well built library is the most important thing in a school.
The infrastructure facilities should be as follows:
Class rooms: minimum size should be 8m*6m (approx
Science labs (composite for secondary or/and separate
physics, chemistry, biology labs for senior secondary):
minimum size should be 9m*6m each approx 600 sq.
Ft. And fully equipped.
In context of the schools ecological and safe sanitation in
fact ensures that the human excreta and school waste
water as resources are recovered , treated where necessary
and safely reused.
While planning/designing school toilets the internal rules
of the establishment have to be considered:
Build separate toilet rooms for girls and boys.
A closed container for disposal of sanitary napkins to be
provided within each cubicle for girls.
Urinals and toilets for boys and toilets for girls to be
installed as per norms.
Hand washing facility must respect children height and
A toilet cleaning and maintenance service has to be
activated within the school.
In Muslim schools separate toilet buildings for girls and
boys, sitting and facing direction must respect religious
SR. NO PROVISION HEAD NUMBER TO BE
1. SQUATTING PAN 1UNIT FOR EVERY
2. FOR CWSN ATLEAST 1 UNIT IN
A GIRLS TOILET
IF ONLY ONE
TOILET NEEDED IT
SHOULD BE FOR
3. WASH TAP 1 TAP IN EACH
HOOK IN EACH
5. NICHE IN WALL 1 IN EACH TOILET FOR SANITARY USE
6. VENTILATION 1 IN EACH 450*450MM
7. DOOR I IN EACH WC 2100MM WITH
8. GIRLS URINAL 1 URINAL FOR
TO FLUSH OUT
10. VENTILATION 1 OPENING IN
11. SCREEN DOOR 1 DOOR FOR
SANITARY FACILITIES FOR BOYS
12. SQUATTING PAN 1 UNIT FOR EVERY 80
DAY SCHOOL WITHOUT
13. FOR CSWN ATLEAST 1 UNIT IN
IF ONLY 1 TOILET IT
SHOULD BE FOR
14. WASH TAPS 1 TAP IN EACH WC LOCATED
CONVENIENTLY FOR A
CHILD AND ADULT USE
2 HOOKS IN EACH
HOOKS AT DIFF, CHILD
1 OPENING IN EACH
17. DOOR 1 DOOR IN EACH
18. BOYS URINAL 1 URINAL FOR
EVERY 20 BOYS
19. SELF CLEANING
TO FLUSH OUT TOXIC
TO ALLOW SUNLIGHT
21. HAND WASH 1 FOR EVERY 20
22. MDM KITCHEN 1 FOR EVERY 20
TOILET FOR HYGIENE
23. SOAP TRAY 1 WITH EVERY 2
24. MIRROR 1 IN EACH HAND
25. STORAGE TANK MIN. 500 LITRES
5 LITRES PER CHILD
WATER POINT IS
MIN. 500 LITRE
STORAGE RESERVE IN
The location of the school library is of as much concern as its
size and shape. It should best be located in area of maximum
accessibility to students and teachers. The premises chosen to
accommodate a library should meet following requirements:
Should be in a quiet area free from excessive noise, disturbance
Should be away from canteen, common room, play ground and
Should have good ventilation and ample day light
Should have sufficient floor area in the reading room to enable
the students to use it comfortably either in groups or
Should have sufficient work space for the staff to receive
books on approval and undertake accessioning, classification
, cataloguing , minor repair , issue and return and reference
service activities .
Should have separate enclosure to be used as
committee/conference room by teachers and pupils for
participating in joint or group discussion.
Should have sufficient stack area so as to organise the books
in open shelves.
Should have a counter/enclosure for keeping personal
Pinegrove School sited at an altitude of 5,000 ft. in the Shimla Hills of the Solan Valley, Himachal Pradesh. This is
fully residential CBSE-affiliated school with an enrolment of 850 boarders (600 boys and 250 girl students)
instructed by 80 highly-qualified teachers.
It is established in 1991, a Co-educational, purely residential, English medium public
school affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE), Delhi.
The class-section average strength is round 25 pupils in junior classes and 30 pupils in
senior classes. The teacher-student ratio is a 1:12.
All classrooms are equipped with computers and Televisions which are networked with
the computer laboratory to assist teachers in conducting computer-aided-teaching (CAT)
•The Junior Wing of the school is located on the Dharampur-Kasauli State Highway, 3 KM off the main Kalka-
Shimla National Highway (NH-22).
•The school campus covers an area of 15 acres constituting
a primary wing
a secondary wing
a sufficient play area
•The average temperature of this region is 20 degree celsius and varies from
•22 to 32 in summers.
•0 to 16 in winters.
•The wind direction is south-west to north-east in summers because of low pressure created in northern region,
whereas in winters this low pressure is created in southern region which accordingly changes the wind direction.
•The average rainfall in the region just touches 1020 millimeters per year.
• Maximum and minimum relative humidity is 90% in September and 28% in April respectively.
•Classes 1 and 2
•Classical music room
•Western music room
•Individual work stations
Recreational Building (New
•Laboratories (chem & bio)
•Sewing, Kitchen, Cyber Cafe, etc.
•Mess having dispensary
A passage connecting
parking to the secondary
wing from where the day-boarders
enter into the
• The area is kept for
parking of visitors and
staff. The remaining
land is treated as a
There’s a play ground in
front of the secondary wing
which gives a person a wide
view of the foothills.
The space above the
auditorium is utilized as a
TOTAL AREA- 47753 SQ.MTR
BUILT UP AREA- 10665 SQ.MTR
AREA OF PLAYGROUND-9035.53 SQ.MTR
•The class-section average strength is round 25 pupils in junior classes and 30 pupils in senior classes.
•The teacher-student ratio is a 1:12.
ENTRY TO RECEPTION
LEADS TO RECEPTION
•The exterior of building may be of bright colour, to attract
more attention of students
•Walls of Kindergarten are painted with cartoons, fairy tales as
it creates interest in the mind of children.
•Other primary classes are painted with dual-colours to avoid
boredom, Hence dull colours are not generally provided.
Senior classes are
also provided with
colors as it create
Mural in the passage
gains attraction and
creates interests to
Bright roofing is prominent in
the hilly areas on contour.
Literature study (color)
•Walls of kindergarten are painted with cartoons, fairytales as it creates
interest in the mind of children.
•Dull colors are not generally provided as they create boredom.
• colors improves visual processing, reduces stress, and challenges brain
development through visual stimulation/relationships and pattern seeking.
•as children mature into adolescence, there is less preference for large areas of
primary color, which they tend to associate with immaturity.
•the most preferred colors are green (nature, trees, comfort) and light yellow
(lively, energetic, happiness, summer). These colors were followed by blue
(relaxation, calmness), red (love, romance), purple (relaxation, calmness,
laughing), blue-green, red-purple, yellow-red, and purple-blue.
Not sufficiently wide corridors are provided
To avoid uneven wall, a
narrow passage is
created for circulation.
Many spaces in the school like
staircase classrooms and other hobby
rooms were beautifully enhanced in
order to create interest among the
Kasauli has a moderate climate. Winter 2 degrees Celsius, with Summer
temperatures rarely exceeding 32 degrees Celsius. The general wind direction is
south-west to north-east. Total rainfall for the year is 1020 millimetres, with
humidity at 90% in September and 28% in April.
PRE FEBRICATED CEMENT BOARD ROOF IS
USED IN ALL THE BLOCKS IN THE ENTIRE
•These are made of pre painted galvanized
•Aesthetically very appealing.
•Offer high degree of insulation and comfort.
•Protects the interior from rains and hail
CLASSES FOR 1,2,3,4,5
For 24 students
The classes have been provided with
audio visual equipment.
The classes have a good play of colours.
Natural light is not well utilized
Class 4 th
For 24 students
Storage given under the bench is a good utilization of space.
Library (old library)
Good use of natural light
Space well utilized for storage
FOR 30 STUDENTS WITH ATTACHED MALE AND FEMALE
MALE AND FEMALE TOILET
Attached to the music room
and the adjoining changing
Urinals provided according
to different age groups
Natural light not well