Janelle BaguleyChelsea EllisDisability Presentation Deaf-BlindnessLegal Definition- Simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes suchsevere communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot beaccommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children withblindness.Causes- Illness Accident Genetic syndrome like Usher Syndrome Premature birth Meningitis Post-natal complicationsCharacteristics- Auditory impairment and visual impairment with vision loss being the primary disability Auditory impairment and vision impairment with auditory impairment as the primary disability Auditory impairment and blindness; deafness and visual impairment, and deaf-blindness Congenitally Deaf-Adventitiously Blind Congenitally Deaf-Blind Adventitiously Deaf-Blind Adventitiously Deaf-Congenitally BlindDegrees Hard of Hearing-Blind Hard of Hearing-Visually Impaired Deaf-Visually Impaired Deaf-Blind
Challenges Dependent on others Communication Navigating surroundings Finding social, living, and employment situations Reaction from others because of differences Learning Strategies- Talk with student (where possible) to see what resources they require. Assisted Listening Devices- Small device worn by instructor that increases volume and clarity of lecture. Interpreter Note takers Tutors Readers Handouts that are converted into students preferred reading style (i.e. braille) Large Print/Braille Materials or Taped Textbooks Reading Machines Audiovisual Materials Oral tests, extended test time, reading machine, better lighting and possibly test converted to brailleAdditional Resources http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/deafblindness http://www.nationaldb.org/ISSelectedTopics.php?topicID=941&topicCatID=24 http://www.hknc.org/ http://www.aadb.org/ http://wwwcms.hutchcc.edu/uploadedFiles/Student_Resources/Disability_Services/tpshtdb.pdf http://www.usdb.org/deafblind/default.aspx http://www.deafblindinfo.org/ http://www.utahbabywatch.org/index.htm
Specific Learning Disabilities By: Caitlin and VanessaDefinition: disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understandingor in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability tolisten, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such asperceptual disabilities, brain injury , minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Ifthe student does not achieve at the proper age and ability levels in one or more of several specific areaswhen provided with appropriate learning experiences age-appropriate instruction in one of more of thefollowing areas: Oral expression Listening comprehension Written expression Basic reading skill Reading fluency skills Reading comprehension Mathematics calculations Mathematics reasoningDoes not make adequate progress to meet age or grade-level standards in one or more of the priorareas identified when utilizing the process of the child’s response to empirically based interventions; ora pattern of weaknesses and strengths that have been determined to exist in performance, achievementor both, relative to age, state-approved grade-level standards, or intellectual development, asdetermined by certified assessment professionals. Specific learning disabilities are considered a high-incidence disability. The U.S. Department of Education reports that there are over 2.8 million studentsbeing served for specific learning disabilities and that’s approximately 47.4% of all children receivingspecial education.Characteristics: Intellectual Academic Reading Writing and drawing Arithmetic Behavior Communicative abilities Physical
Teaching StrategiesPerceptual Difficulties Do not present two pieces of information together that may be perceptually confusing. Highlight important characteristics of new materialStudents with Attention Difficulties Maintain attention by breaking long tasks and presenting limited amounts of information. Use prompts and cues to draw attention to important information. (like highlighting instructions)Students with Memory Difficulties Chunking- grouping of large strings of information into smaller or more manageable “chunks”. Rehearsal or repetition, either oral or silent Elaboration weaving of the material to be remembered into a meaningful content. Categorization- being able to memorize information in categories. Ex. AnimalsRESOURCES www.interdys.org Gives information about dyslexia, October is national dyslexia awareness month. http://www.projectidealonline.org/specificLearningDisabilities.php Gives helpful information, not for just one disability, but for several disabilities. http://www.ldaamerica.org Want to create opportunities for success for all children with learning disabilities. http://www.ncld.org Gives basic information and resources for schools.
Bruce Abe David Squires VISUAL IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDNESSDefinitionAccording to IDEA - Sec. 300.8 (c) (13)Visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction,adversely affects a childs educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.An fyi from our text book, Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers (Friend & Bursuck, 2012) explains that the term legal blindness means the vision in the besteye, with correction, is 20/200 or lower (what a person with normal vision can see at 200 feet can onlybe seen at 20 feet), or the visual field is 20 degrees or less (the person sees a small slice of what otherscan see).CharacteristicsAccording to NICHCY, common signs that a child may have a visual impairment include the following: Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face Crossed eyes, eyes that turn out or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that do not seem to focus Eyes that bulge, dance, or bounce in rapid rhythmic movements Pupils that are unequal in size or that appear white instead of black Repeated shutting or covering of one eye Unusual degree of clumsiness, such as frequent bumping into things or knocking things over Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there’s no bright light present Sitting too close to the TV or holding toys and books too close to the face Avoiding tasks and activities that require good visionIf any of these symptoms are present, parents will want to have their child’s eyes professionallyexamined. Early detection and treatment are very important to the child’s development.Types of Visual ImpairmentNot all visual impairments are the same, although the umbrella term “visual impairment” is often usedto describe an eye condition or disorder. Common visual impairments you are likely familiar with arenear-sightedness and far-sightedness. Less familiar visual impairments include: Strabismus, where the eyes look in different directions and do not focus simultaneously on a single point; Congenital cataracts, where the lens of the eye is cloudy; Retinopathy of prematurity, which may occur in premature babies when the light-sensitive retina hasn’t developed sufficiently before birth; Retinitis pigmentosa, a rare inherited disease that slowly destroys the retina; Coloboma, where a portion of the structure of the eye is missing; Optic nerve hypoplasia, which is caused by underdeveloped fibers in the optic nerve and which affects depth perception, sensitivity to light, and acuity of vision; and Cortical visual impairment (CVI), which is caused by damage to the part of the brain related to vision, not to the eyes themselves.
Teaching StrategiesEncourage independence: it is often difficult for these students to become as fully independent as theyare capable of being. The classroom teacher should encourage independence as often as possible toavoid the trap of “learned helplessness.” Encourage the student to move independently through theclassroom, and organize your classroom accordingly.Communicate: with the student, with the students’ parents, with special educators, the O & Mspecialist, and other teachers who have more experience than you.Learn about the student’s specific visual impairment: what aspects of vision are affected, and how doesthat affect the student’s ability to move around the classroom, see the board, or read a textbook.Students and parents can be good sources of information.Adapting your classroom: account for the student’s specific visual impairment. Place a student withlow vision near the front of the room where he or she can see the blackboard. Control lighting variableswhen presenting learning materials to those students who are sensitive to light and glare. Make safelanes to walk through, and keep cupboard doors closed.Verbal cues: for those students who cannot see body movements or physical cues, verbal cues arenecessary.Textbooks and instructional materials: students need access to materials in the appropriate media andat the same time as their peers. For students who are blind this may mean braille and/or recordedmedia. For the student with low vision, this may mean large print text or the use of optical devices toaccess text and/or recorded media while in class.Use the IEP: it serves as a guide for what the student’s goals are, and what accommodations areappropriate.Other ResourcesDefinition:http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/%2Croot%2Cregs%2C300%2CA%2C300%252E8%2Cc%2C13%2CCharacteristics:http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/visualimpairmentAmerican Academy of Pediatrics lists types of health issues affecting eyes.http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/eyes/pages/Specific-Eye-Problems.aspxLearning Strategies:http://www.projectidealonline.org/visualImpairments.phpEye visual, National Eye Institute is part of the National Institutes of Health.http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/eyediagram/index.aspAdvocacy group:Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired supports educators withprofessional development, publications, and advocacy.http://www.aerbvi.org/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=1Created by AFB so that families of blind people can connect with each other.
http://www.familyconnect.org/parentsitehome.aspWhat are the issues you face when setting up your classroom?http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/v01_clearview/chalcycle.htmInstruction materials:Printing house for the blindhttp://www.aph.org/Accessible Instruction Materialshttp://aim.cast.org/Educators guide to getting accessible textbooks.http://aim.cast.org/learn/aim4families/school/accessible_textbooks
SPEECH and LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTDefinition<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->There are many kinds of speech and language disorders that can affect children. In this fact sheet, we’ll talk about four major areas in which these impairments occur. These are the areas of: <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->Articulation | speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”); <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->Fluency | speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns; <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->Voice | speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness; and <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->Language | language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say. (1)<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Specific words in IDEA <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]--> “(11) Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” [34 CFR §300.8(c)(11]Characteristics<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->A childs communication is considered delayed when the child is noticeably behind his or her peers in the acquisition of speech and/or language skills. Speech disorders refer to difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality. Characteristics may include:
<!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech such as stuttering (known as dysfluency); <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->trouble forming sounds (called articulation or phonological disorders); <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->difficulties with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice; <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->trouble using some speech sounds, such as saying "see" when they mean "ski." <!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->A language disorder is an impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally. Characteristics include: <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->improper use of words and their meanings; <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->inability to express ideas; <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->inappropriate grammatical patterns; <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]-->reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions Strategies<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Patience, patience, patience<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Accepting and accommodating an individual’s speech and individual instruction<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Encourage the student to participate in classroom activities, giving her adequate time to speak.<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Create an environment of acceptance and understanding in the classroom, and encourage peers to accept the student with speech impairment<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Practice and maintain easy and effective communication skills: <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]--> model good listening skills, <!--[if !supportLists]-->o <!--[endif]--> facilitate participate of all students in discussion and activites<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Speak to the student as you would with any other student.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Do not interrupt or try to complete her thoughts. Ask her to repeat her message when necessary; do not feign understanding.<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->When introducing new vocabulary, help the student practice difficult words. Dividing words into syllables and pronouncing each syllable will improve speech, reading and writing.<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Using many different listening activities will also aid the student in comprehending and determining her own production of sounds.<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->Have the student answer “yes” or “no.” Resources Definitions<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/speechlanguage Characteristics<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->http://www.ci.maryville.tn.us/mhs/MCSSped/speechlang.htm Strategies<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->www.ataccess.org<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->www.asha.org<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->www.projectidealonline.org<!--[if !supportLists]-->•&νβσπ;<!--[endif]-->http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-education/ Christopher Baer, Laura Varela, Perrine Voisin