Copyright Management for the LUISA Semantic Learning Content Management System


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Semantic Web technology is able to provide the required computational semantics for interoperability of learning resources across different Learning Management Systems (LMS) and Learning Object Repositories (LOR). The EU research project LUISA (Learning Content Management System Using Innovative Semantic Web Services Architecture) addresses the development of a reference semantic architecture for the major challenges in the search, interchange and delivery of learning objects in a service-oriented context. One of the key issues, highlighted in this paper, is Digital Rights Management (DRM) interoperability. A Semantic Web approach to copyright management has been followed, which places a Copyright Ontology as the key component for interoperability among existing DRM systems and other licensing schemes like Creative Commons. Moreover, Semantic Web tools like reasoners, rule engines and semantic queries facilitate the implementation of an interoperable copyright management component in the LUISA architecture.

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  • Copyright Management for the LUISA Semantic Learning Content Management System

    1. 1. Copyright Management for the LUISA Semantic Learning Content Management System Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain Tomas Pariente ATOS Origin SAE, Spain LUISA is an European Comission FP6 funded Specific Targeted Research Project
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Related Work </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Model </li></ul><ul><li>License Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>“ Web-spread” of e-Learning solutions requires Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabler: richer semantics than current metadata specifications for learning resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LUISA (EU-IST-FP6): reference semantic and service-oriented architecture for e-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search, interchange and delivery of learning objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face interoperability at different levels using Semantic Web technologies </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>At the content copyright level: eLearning DRM interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Main problem: lack of structured and formal ways to express the licensing terms of learning objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sakai : predefined and simple copyright status sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Material is in public domain” or “I hold copyright” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Use copyright below” + text box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM : set of attributes for stating learning object rights: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cost”, “Copyright and Other Restrictions” and “Description” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Related Work <ul><li>Creative Commons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on open licensing schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Open Courseware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension for custom licensing schemes (CCPlus), but not based on formalised license building blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DRM Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC MPEG-21 Rights Expression Language (REL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Related Work <ul><li>DRM Standards issues [1]: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t scale well to open environments like the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More appropriate for closed domains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause interoperability issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main DRM end-users complains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights language limited expressivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to accommodate copyright law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation based on formal language grammar, no formal semantics </li></ul></ul></ul>[1] Electronic Frontier Foundation Report by Doctorow, 2005
    7. 7. Proposal <ul><li>Use the Copyright Ontology [1] in order to model e-Learning copyright licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More expressive than XML approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates interoperability , works at the semantic level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a copyright law model, WIPO worldwide recommendations [2] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also based on Semantic Web technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright Ontology: provides the building blocks and restrictions to flexibly model LOs licensing terms </li></ul>[1] Copyright Ontology, [2] World Intellectual Property Organisation,
    8. 8. Copyright Model Rights Model
    9. 9. Copyright Model Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Creation Model
    10. 10. Copyright Model Action Model
    11. 11. Copyright Model <ul><li>Actions governed by rights, economic rights : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction Right: Copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution Right: Distribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More specifically: Sell , Rent and Lend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Performance Right: Perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation Right: Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Right: Broadcast and Make Available . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation Right: Derive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialisations: Adapt and Translate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. License Modelling <ul><li>Primitive actions – case roles  action participants </li></ul>initiator resource goal essence Action agent, effector instrument result, recipient patient, theme Process agent, origin matter result, recipient patient, theme Transfer agent, origin instrument, medium experiencer, recipient theme Spatial origin path destination location Temporal start duration completion pointInTime Ambient reason manner aim, consequence condition
    13. 13. License Modelling <ul><li>Combine these building blocks to model licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both commercial and open access terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main component: Action Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined combining restrictions using logical operators </li></ul></ul>Pattern ≡ Copy ⊓ ∀ pointInTime. ≥ 2008-01-01, ≤ 2008-06-30 ⊓ ∃ agent.Subscribers ⊓ ∃ theme.{learningObject}
    14. 14. License Modelling <ul><li>Additional actions and case roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree (Disagree): state what is permitted (prohibited) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condition : links to another pattern that must satisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aim : links condition pattern to conditioned one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consequence: links pattern to obliged one </li></ul></ul>:agreement a co:Agree; co:agent :owner; co:theme :Pattern. Condition ≡ Transfer ⊓ ∃ recipient.{owner} ⊓ ∃ theme.{3EurosAmount} ∃agent.Subscribers ⊓ ∃ aim.Pattern ⊓ (≤ 1 aim) :Pattern co:condition :Condition.
    15. 15. License Modelling <ul><li>Description Logic reasoners </li></ul><ul><li>implement pattern matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If instance action classified in OWL Class for pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use SPARQL queries to check action permitted by agreed pattern and condition fulfilment: </li></ul>ASK { ?agreement rdf:type co:Agree; co:theme ?pattern . :copy rdf:type ?pattern ; co:agent ?consumer ; co:condition ?conditionPattern . ?condition rdf:type ?conditionPattern ; co:agent ?consumer ; co:aim :copy.}
    16. 16. Conclusions & Future Work
    17. 17. Conclusions & Future Work <ul><li>Semantic DRM module for LUISA based on the Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible enough to accommodate different licensing schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model LUISA partners licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test the whole range of LUISA scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check scalability </li></ul></ul>