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Automating rights decision elag 2017

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Legal Issues in Big Data
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Automating rights decision elag 2017

  1. 1. Automating rights decisions ELAG 2017, 08-06-2017 Jeffrey van der Hoeven, Rene Wiermer
  2. 2. The dream: In reality: Open access to everything for everybody! Limited access due to copyright & contracts
  3. 3. Examples of restrictions (1) 1600 1930 1945 1980 2017 open closed 1400 1900 2017 open restricted 1995 Time -> digitized newspapers digitized books no download
  4. 4. Examples of restrictions (2) Publisher AReading room only Journal titels -> open API key account datasets Scientific articles Publisher B Publisher Z
  5. 5. Examples of restrictions (3) Copyright infringement on photographs Newspaper X Newspaper Y
  6. 6. What can I do with this publication about quantum physics?
  7. 7. Do I have access to this ?
  8. 8. What can I do with it ?
  9. 9. Access to sensitive material
  10. 10. User interaction. Here: Accepting terms of uses
  11. 11. Needs 1: more information to the end user - How do I get access ? - What can I do with it ? Improve UX with standardization of rights decisions
  12. 12. Needs 2: One system for multiple applications - Several websites: Delpher, Geheugen van Nederland, Staten Generaal Digitaal - Several API’s: URN-Resolver, OAI-PMH, Search services … Centralize access decisions for better compliance, management and reporting One change = immediately visible in each application
  13. 13. Needs 3: reducing our digitization backlog - We have a lot of digital content that requires certain restrictions - How can we make this accessible to anybody who is allowed to see it ? - We had an “on/off” infrastructure for most of our content - Either accessible for everybody or not at all - Not flexible enough, blocked workflows Automation of rights decisions based on - Metadata (Publication date, authors, publisher, type of material..) - Location (e.g. reading room) - Type of user (e.g. researcher)
  14. 14. Simple approach: extra metadata field ? - For example - <rights> FREE|RESTRICTED|CLOSED|... </rights> - <license> CC0|CustomContract|... </license> - Make decision based on the value of that field - Works probably fine in a lot scenarios - But: - Does not scale with variation depending on context - “Free for users of type researcher and visitors to the reading room, but not outside of it” - Needs maintenance over time -Missing: why was this decision made ?
  15. 15. Instead: policies as code - Policy: formalized set of rules regarding a collection of objects - Decided at runtime -> decisions can change over time - Follows general lines of thought of the organization: legal obligations, contracts with publishers, management decisions
  16. 16. Example: Simplest policy All is freely accesible return Decision.permit();
  17. 17. Still simple policy Role-based access (from API-key, username/password auth…) if (context.roles.contains("DS_METADATA_DTS")) return Decision.permit(); Access based on publication date static GregorianCalendar metadataFreeDate=new GregorianCalendar(1940,Calendar.JANUARY,1); if (attributes.getMetadata().getPublicationDate()?.before(metadataFreeDate.getTime())) { return Decision.permit(); } Fallback return Decision.denied();
  18. 18. Example: Books Check for location if (context.location.equals("READING_ROOM")) { ... } Demand measures to prevent downloads from frontend if (attributes.listContainsValue("boeken-leeszaal-kopieerbeveiliging", "ppn", attributes.getMetadata().getPpn()) ) { return Decision.permit(new Obligation("DoNotDownload"),usageRights); } Check for death dates of all contributors if (DateChecks.allAuthorsDeadLongerThan(attributes.getMetadata(),authorDeathDateLimit)) { return Decision.permit(usageRights); }
  19. 19. Decisions Input: Identifier, Metadata, Location, Authorization End result of a policy decisions: - PERMIT - DENIED - NOT APPLICABLE additional attributes: - obligations: things the endpoint has to enforce - advices: things the endpoint might need to improve UX Ex: PERMIT (obligation:”DoNotDownload”, advice:”OnlyInReadingRoom”)
  20. 20. Diagram by David Brossard under a CC-BY 3.0 license Enforce Decide Administer Metadata Context
  21. 21. Enforce Decide Administer Metadata Context Image server OAI-PMHObject store PDP webservice RDBMS Metadata HTTP Request Admin/Reporting GUI Policy Scripts Groovy Authorization LDAP
  22. 22. Architecture: XACML (sort of) - Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) - Follows XACML reference architecture - … but not the language (cumbersome, slow and restricted)
  23. 23. Technology - Write the policies in an embedded scripting language (Groovy) - Fast (in comparison to XACML language implementations) - Able to be adopted/managed outside of core development team - still: reuse of existing development toolchain - Automated testing ! - Deployed as central REST service - Serves multiple applications
  24. 24. Reporting and testing Collections Policies Digital Objects Policies Metadata
  25. 25. Reporting and testing
  26. 26. Limitations - Search filtering on access: combination with dynamic decisions - Which objects am I allowed to use ? - Export of access information to other systems (e.g. WorldCat) Possible mitigations - Compromises on dynamic decisions (short term) - Move from slow ETL to event-based architectures (longer term)
  27. 27. Current status & results - Stepwise in production since Mid 2016 - New objects are becoming available - Copyright claims are easier to handle - Clearer insight into current status of collection - Better insight into needs for partnership contracts - Impulses for better metadata storage/access infrastructure 175M requests per month +/- 6 million a day 60+ million pages under control by access management
  28. 28. Any questions?
  29. 29. END
  30. 30. About - Managing digital collections with multiple licenses and access policies - Technical choices that fit our organisational needs Not about - DRM and copy protection - Usage of closed proprietary systems
  31. 31. Motivation - As a public service organisation we want: access as far as possible - Limit of possibilities - Licenses - Contractual obligations - Governmental and organisational policies - Copyright status - A simple yes or no is not always enough; we need - a clear guideline for the user: what can I do with it and how do I get access ? - automation of management: we want to be able to scale and still be compliant
  32. 32. Crossing the domains: communication - Define your terms: Collection, policy, decision … make sure to communicate them clearly - Make sure contracts and managerial decisions can be translated to the technical reality. - Offer protection and guarantee options for future contracts - Make compliance easier through monitoring + reporting - Use of examples + flow diagrams
  33. 33. ONIX-PL: machine-readable contracts Machine-readable, but not actionable
  34. 34. Our problems - Multiple applications give access to collections - ideally centralised decision making and reporting - Decisions depend on context: user, location, time - Flexible to allow for individual interventions - Clearer insight necessary why things are hidden away
  35. 35. Click to adjust • Subject 1 • Subject 2 • Subject 3
  36. 36. Click to adjust • Subject 1 • Subject 2
  37. 37. Name table