Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain

93 views

Published on

Solutions based on distributed ledgers require sophisticated tools for data modelling and integration that can be overcome using semantic and Linked Data technologies. One example is copyright management, where we attempt to adapt the Copyright Ontology so it can be used to build applications that benefit from both worlds, rich information modelling and reasoning together with immutable and accountable information storage that provides trust and confidence on the modelled rights statements. This approach has been applied in the context of an application for the management of social media re-use for journalistic purposes.

Published in: Software
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain

  1. 1. Roberto García and Rosa Gil HCI & Data Integration Research Group Universitat de Lleida, Spain Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain 21st International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services (iiWAS2019) December 2-4 2019, Munich, Germany
  2. 2. 2 Motivating Scenario • Reuse of User Generated Video (UGV) from Social Media for journalistic purposes • H2020 project InVID, In Video Veritas – Verification of Social Media Video Content for the News Industry https://www.invid-project.eu 1. Discovering social media about current events 2. Video verification to avoid fake news 3. Request reuse, check licensing, negotiate terms, sign agreements,… even economic compensation • WP4. Rights Management – Led by Universitat de Lleida Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  3. 3. 3 Objectives • Sophisticated models for copyright information: • Rights status • Reuse terms • Negotiation • Copyright agreements • Trust and confidence on rights statements • Potentially legally binding (time stamp, signatures, tamper proof,…) • Proposed approach: • Semantic Web: rich information modelling and reasoning • Blockchain: immutable and accountable information storage Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  4. 4. 4 Semantic Web – Copyright Ontology • Copyright knowledge representation • Copyright Ontology: based on fundamental ontological distinction: • Abstract: intangible • Process: happens, temporal stages (action, event,…) • Object: can be defined independent of time (includes digital objects) Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Abstract Objects Processes Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  5. 5. 5 Copyright Ontology • Also capture the dynamic parts of the copyright value chain • Actions performed by value chain participants • Plus consumer actions: • Buy, Attend, Access, Play, Tune,… • Plus licensing actions: • Agree/Disagree • Transfer, Attribute,… Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Creator Actor Producer Broadcaster User Motion PictureScript Adaptation Performance manifest perform record Communication broadcastadapt Literary Work tune
  6. 6. 6 • Model full details of an action, its dimensions like as a verb in a sentence (roles): • who performs it, what is manipulated, when, where… Copyright Ontology Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Who? What? When? Where? Role Kind Main Role Description who schema:agent The direct performer or driver of the action (animate or inanimate) schema:participant Other co-agents that participated in the action indirectly, for instance a recipient what schema:object The object upon which the action is carried out schema:result The result produced in the action where schema:location Where an action takes place schema:fromLocation The original location of the object or the agent before the action schema:toLocation The final location of the object or the agent after the action when schema:startTime When the action started or the time it is expected to start schema:endTime When the action finished or the time it is expected to end pointInTime The point in time when the action happens duration The amount of time the action requires to complete with schema:instrument The object that helps the agent perform the action why aim The reason or objective of the action how manner The way the action is carried out if condition Something that must hold or happen before the action starts then consequence Something that must hold or happen after the action is completed
  7. 7. 7 Architecture Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Rights Management Services Rights Database InVID Rights Management Rights Data Distributed Ledger Identify Provider Semantic Repository Users & Orgs DB Rights Management App (for Journalists and Content Owners) uPort (self-sovereign id) Identify Attestation Semantic Copyright Management
  8. 8. 8 Check UGV Rights Status Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 https://rights.invid.udl.cat
  9. 9. 9 Show Reuse Conditions Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  10. 10. 10 Request Reuse Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Current video, plus all future YouTube videos by content owner or in any social network linked to InVID profile
  11. 11. 11 Accept or Negotiate Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  12. 12. 12Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 License Reasoning • Streamline licensing • License to organisation or everyone • License future videos • Semantic representation of agreements • Semantic queries to check previous agreements • Including territories, timeframes or revocations InVID Rights Management Rights Database JSON-LD Semantic Repository Semantic Copyright Management
  13. 13. 13 • JSON-LD serialisation of a Reuse Agreement: • Grants any member of the Daily Planet permission to republish a YouTube video whose owner is the Google user Store Agreement { "@context": { "@vocab": "http://invid.udl.cat/ontology/", "cro": "http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyrightonto.owl#", "schema": "http://schema.org/" }, "@id": "…/reuseAgreements/1", "@type": "cro:Agree", "cro:when": "2019-02-16T15:15:00Z", "cro:who": [ { "@id": ”…/inVIDUsers/1", "@type": "schema:Person", "schema:name": "Clark Kent", "schema:email": "journalist@invid-project.eu", "schema:memberOf": { "@id": "…/organizations/1", "@type": "schema:Organization", "schema:name": "Daily Planet" } }, { "@id": "…/contentOwners/1", "@type": "schema:Person", "username": "user”, "schema:email": "user@gmail.com", "schema:name": "Google User" } ], "cro:what": { "@id": "…/reuseTerms/1", "@type": "cro:MakeAvailable", "schema:startTime": "2019-03-01T10:44:00Z", "schema:endTime": "2019-05-01T10:44:00Z", "cro:who": { "@id": "…/organizations/1" }, "cro:what": { "@id": "…/youTubeVideos/_5l7vn1QdKM", "@type": "YouTubeVideo", "user": { "@id": "…/youTubeChannels/MyChannel", "@type": "YouTubeChannel", "contactURL": "http://www.youtube.com/channel/MyChannel/about", "contentOwner": { "@id": "…/contentOwners/1" } } } } } Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  14. 14. 14 License Reasoning Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19
  15. 15. 15 • SPARQL standard for semantic queries • Check intended reuse against existing agreements • Encapsulate complexities minimising implementation cost • Flexibility and scalability • Example: • Active agreements, not disagreed, with Make Available term • what: restricted to the YouTube video _5l7vn1QdKM • startTime: 2019-11-15 • who: is InVIDUser 2, Organization 1 or any organization InVIDUser 2 is a member of • where: Spain or a region Spain is contained in SPARQL for License Reasoning Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 PREFIX … SELECT DISTINCT ?isAuthorized ?why WHERE { ?agree rdf:type cro:Agree ; cro:what ?term ; cro:when ?agreeDate FILTER ( xsd:dateTime( ?agreeDate) <= now() ) OPTIONAL { ?disagree rdf:type cro:Disagree ; cro:what ?term ; cro:when ?disagreeDate FILTER ( xsd:dateTime( ?disagreeDate) <= now() ) } BIND((bound(?agree) && (!bound(?disagree))) AS ?isAuthorized) BIND(if(bound( ?disagree), ?disagree, ?agree) AS ?why) ?term rdf:type cro:MakeAvailable . ?term cro:what <…/youTubeVideos/_5l7vn1QdKM> . ?term schema:startTime ?start FILTER ("2019-11-15" >= ?start) … { { ?term cro:who <…/inVIDUsers/2>} UNION { ?term cro:who <…/organizations/1>} UNION { ?term cro:who ?organization . <…/inVIDUsers/2> schema:memberOf ?organization } } { { ?term cro:where "Spain"} UNION { ?term cro:where ?regionName . ?region rdfs:label ?regionName . ?country rdfs:label "Spain" . ?country (schema:containedInPlace)+ ?region } } }
  16. 16. 16 Trustful Agreements • Use Ethereum Smart Contracts • Blockchain as a global shared computer • Immutable transactions (executed in all nodes) • Encode rules guaranteed to execute • Smart contract keeps track of semantic agreements • Participants digitally sign negotiation steps, last by both (agreement) • Identity management using uPort mobile app • Self-Sovereign Identities (e.g. email attestations) • Transaction signing: scan QR code • Optional: remuneration using cryptocurrency wallet https://www.uport.me Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Rights Database InVID Rights Management Distributed Ledger Agreement Time Stamping Accountability Auditability Tamper Proof Identify Attestations
  17. 17. 17 Reuse Request address journalist address contentOwner int stepstCount bool revoked Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19 Ethereum Blockchain Implementation smart contract Reuse Request address journalist address contentOwner int stepstCount bool revoked Reuse Request address journalist address contentOwner int stepsCount bool revoked Negotiation Step bool signedJournalist uint64 journalistTimestamp bool signedOwner uint64 ownerTimestamp string hash Negotiation Step bool signedJournalist uint64 journalistTimestamp bool signedOwner uint64 ownerTimestamp string hash https://rights.invid.udl.cat/blockchain/guide Reuse Terms (JSON-LD) Reuse Terms (JSON-LD)
  18. 18. 18 Future Work • Smart contract for copyright registration • Link to social media content through trusted oracles (off-chain data) • Upload authorship evidences to facilitate disputes resolution • Work in progress: copyrightly.io • Smart contract for usage tracking • Register copyright uses • Decentralized tracking against registered agreements • On-chain escrow service for crypto payments • Smart contracts for dispute resolution • Legal experts participation through incentive and reputation mechanisms • Connect to existing projects like kleros.io • Courts as last resort using evidences collected on-chain Social Media Copyright Management using Semantic Web and Blockchain - iiWAS’19

×