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Integration and Exploration of Financial Data using Semantics and Ontologies


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Keynote at the Eurofiling XBRL Week, Academic Track, 6-9 June 2017. Hosted by the European Central Bank, Frankfurt, Germany. The keynote reported about one the first attempts to move a significant amount of XBRL to the Semantic Web, modelling XRML XML with RDF and XBRL Taxonomies with OWL.

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Integration and Exploration of Financial Data using Semantics and Ontologies

  1. 1. Integration and Exploration of Financial Data using Semantics and Ontologies Roberto García HCI and Data Integration Research Group Universitat de Lleida, Spain 8 Academic Track
  2. 2. Introduction • Report experience first attempt to map “significant” amount of XBRL to RDF – 2008 +100M triples… and as far as we know • Test Semantic Web and Linked Data for financial data integration and exploration • Convert it, map XBRL to RDF – Apply generic mapping: ReDeFer • XSD2OWL, XML2RDF • Once as RDF+OWL, improve comparability using semantic links
  3. 3. Semantic XBRL • Dataset size (from US SEC) – May 2012: 125,55 million triples from 29342 XBRL filings – – Linked Open Data Cloud 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 Filings Triples (millions) Publishing XBRL as Linked Open Data LDOW’09 @ WWW’09 Position Paper @ 2009 W3C Workshop on Improving Access to Financial Data on the Web Linking XBRL Financial Data (chapter) Linking Enterprise Data Book, 2010 Using Semantic Web Technologies to Facilitate XBRL-based Financial Data Comparability FEOSW'12 @ ESWC’12 Improving the comparability of financial statements in a changeable context: a Semantic Web-based approach PhD Thesis, Economics. Héctor Carretié, 2012
  4. 4. Approach XML2RDF XSD2OWL XBRL Schemas .xml XBRL filings XBRL Ontologies ReDeFer Rhizomer +1M triples LOD Linking RDF2Form XHTML+ RDFa RDF2HTML SPARQL edit post Rhizomer AJAX get .xsd EDGAR RSS Feed download EDGAR Standard Taxonomies .US +100M triples
  5. 5. XBRL XML to RDF • ReDeFer XML2RDF, model XML tree using triples – xsd:element and xsd:atribute  rdf:Property – xbrli:id and xbrli:identifier  rdf:Resource ID – Other resources, anonymous Rendered by RDF2SVG
  6. 6. XBRL XSD to OWL • XBRL Schemas: XBRL 2.1, US GAAP1, Spanish PGC… • ReDeFer XSD2OWL XML Schema OWL element | attribute rdf:Property owl:DatatypeProperty owl:ObjectProperty element@substitutionGroup rdfs:subPropertyOf element@type rdfs:range complexType owl:Class complexType//element owl:Restriction extension@base | restriction@base rdfs:subClassOf @maxOccurs, @minOccurs owl:maxCardinality, owl:minCardinality sequence, choice owl:intersectionOf, owl:unionOf Core classes and properties for XBRL Instance XSD2OWL mappings 1 Ontologies available from
  7. 7. XML2RDF plus XSD2OWL • Enrich RDF with links to classes for corresponding XSD complexTypes:
  8. 8. Comparability • Generate semantic links across accounting standards (XBRL taxonomies) – Automatic ontology alignment tools – Experts input – Numeric analysis • Comparability experiment: – Telefonica S.A. Balance Sheet 2008 and 2009 • XBRL for Spanish CNMV • XBRL for US SEC
  9. 9. Semantic Links US SEC - Spanish CNMV
  10. 10. DESCRIBE ?r WHERE { ?r a ifrs:NoncurrentAssets } DESCRIBE ?r WHERE { ?r a ifrs:OtherNoncurrentFinancialAssets }
  11. 11. Conclusions • XBRL tools: for financial information edition and maintenance (formulae,…) • Semantic Web tools: data integration, cross querying,… COMPARABILITY – Across filings, companies, accounting principles,… • However, lack of impact of Semantic XBRL – Project discontinued 2013 – Too early? – Too much semantics… or too little? XSD2OWLXML2RDF
  12. 12. Financial Industry Business Ontology • FIBO™ open industry standard for defining financial contracts terms, facts and relationships • 11 core domains, 49 modules and 418 ontology files: – Foundations – Business Entities – Indices and Indicators – Securities Reference Terms – Derivatives – Loans – Market Data – Collective Investment Vehicles – Corporate Actions – Payments – Portfolios and Holdings – …
  13. 13. Derivatives / Swaps
  14. 14. Experience with US Banks • Consulting for Cambridge Semantics – • Banks interest in heavyweight semantics, data integration for regulators reports automation • Proof of Concept with Interest Rate Swaps – Modelling – Exploration – Automatic classification (reasoning) • Cross-currency swaps • Single-currency swaps • Float-Fixed swaps • …
  15. 15. Experience with US Banks
  16. 16. Thank you for your attention Questions? Roberto García @rogargon HCI and Data Integration Research Group Universitat de Lleida, Spain