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An OWL Copyright Ontology for Semantic Digital Rights Management


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Digitalisation and the Internet have caused a content reproduction and distribution revolution with clear implications for copyright management. There are many Digital Rights Management (DRM) efforts that facilitate copyright management in closed domains but they find great difficulties when they are forced to interoperate in an open domain like the World Wide Web. In order to facilitate interoperation and automation, DRM systems can be enriched with domain formalisations like the Copyright Ontology. This ontology is implemented using the Description Logic variant of the Web Ontology Language (OWL-DL). This approach facilitates the implementation of efficient usages against licenses checking, which is reduced to description logics classification.

Published in: Economy & Finance, Education
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An OWL Copyright Ontology for Semantic Digital Rights Management

  1. 1. An OWL Copyright Ontology for Semantic Digital Rights Management International Workshop on Web Semantics SWWS’06 Roberto García Rosa Gil November 2, 2006 Montpellier, France
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Digital media: easy production and copy </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Rights Management (DRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media DRM, iTunes FairPlay, RealNetworks Helix, Sony MagicGate… </li></ul>DRM copy play …
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Internet: easy distribution </li></ul><ul><li>DRM interoperability </li></ul>REL DRM DRM DRM
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Need for a standard REL (Rights Expression Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Some efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML-based RELs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons simple predefined licenses </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>DRM Watch 1 : “2005 Review DRM Standards” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… consumer complaints have moved beyond overly restrictive DRMs to lack of interoperability among them…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… we see no production implementations …” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… ContentGuards asserts its patents apply to any REL implementation in DRM…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Frontier Foundation 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… fail to accommodate… copyright regimes.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… based on an analogy with contract law . ” </li></ul></ul>1 2
  7. 7. Objectives <ul><li>Standardisation difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet/Web open and heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright complex domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the roots, formalise SEMANTICS </li></ul>ODRL “ Duplicate ” Reproduction Right Copy MPEG-21 “ Adapt ” CC “ Reproduction ” Copyright
  8. 8. Objectives <ul><li>Knowledge Representation: Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Web Ontology: Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>Increased expressivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalise semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate interoperability and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome REL patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support full value chain , not just user’s licenses </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Specification <ul><li>Copyright domain analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIPO worldwide harmonisation 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literary, artistic and scientific works ( not ideas ) </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe derived, but always original </li></ul>1 World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty, 1996
  11. 11. Specification <ul><li>Applicable to the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Controlled P2P metadata diffusion scenario” </li></ul></ul>Peer A Peer B <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> Make Available Right <rdf:RDF> Reproduction Right Scenario
  12. 12. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Complex domain, build model in three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Model </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conceptualisation Les Misérables Creation Model
  14. 14. Conceptualisation Rights Model
  15. 15. Conceptualisation <ul><li>End-users do no t hold rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special permissions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>Rights Model
  16. 16. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Actions, the building blocks </li></ul>Action Model
  17. 17. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Actions governed by Economic Rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction Right : reproduce , copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution Right : distribute; sell , rent , lend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Performance Right : perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation Right : fix , record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Right : communicate ; retransmit, broadcast , make available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation Right : transform ; adapt , translate </li></ul></ul>Action Model
  18. 18. Conceptualisation <ul><li>End-user actions, consumption , to use a… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manifestation: buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instance: buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance: assist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication: access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broadcast: tune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>something made available: access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>picture, sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>book, CD, DVD </li></ul><ul><li>projection, recital, exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>TV channel, radio station </li></ul><ul><li>web page, stream </li></ul>Action Model
  19. 19. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Licensing actions: agree , disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Altogether: copyright value chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. “serials adapted from literary works” </li></ul></ul>Action Model
  20. 20. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Case roles : relate actions and its participants </li></ul>Action Model
  21. 21. Conceptualisation <ul><li>“ Controlled P2P metadata diffusion scenario”… </li></ul>Scenario Action Model
  22. 22. Implementation <ul><li>One conceptual model, many implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Implementation with OWL </li></ul><ul><li>OWL-DL variant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables tractable and decidable reasoning for use-license checking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Rule Language </li></ul>OWL Full OWL DL OWL Lite + expressivity - complexity
  23. 23. Implementation <ul><li>Licences and Rights implemented as Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses implemented as Instances </li></ul><ul><li>if u ∈ Copy Pattern then license pattern authorises u </li></ul>Reproduction Right Copy Copyright Copy Pattern u ?
  24. 24. Implementation <ul><li>Pattern ⊑ Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern ≡ ∀pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30 ⊓ ∃agent.{granted} ⊓ ∃origin.{peerA} ⊓ ∃theme.{fragment01} ⊓ (≤ 2 recipient) ⊓ ∀recipient.{peerB, peerC, peerD} </li></ul>Scenario Agree Problem
  25. 25. Implementation <ul><li>Problem : Open World Assumption (OWA) </li></ul><ul><li>OWA sensible constructs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>max Cardinality (≤ n): new facts can make cardinality ≥ n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allValuesFrom (∀R.C) … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OWA insensible constructs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minCardinality (≥ n): new facts, no change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>0 1 3 2 maxCardinality 2 (n ≤ 2) minCardinality 3 (n ≥ 3) New facts “ OPEN WORLD”
  26. 26. Implementation <ul><li>Metalevel negation to overcome OWA </li></ul><ul><li>Agree OWA insensible constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>∃ , ≥,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagree “negated” OWL sensible constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>∀ R.C  ∃R.¬C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>≤ n  ≥ n+1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowed(u)  Agree.theme(u) ⊓ ¬Disagree.theme(u) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Implementation <ul><li>Pattern’ ⊑ Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern’ ≡ ∀pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30 ⊓ ∃agent.{granted} ⊓ ∃origin.{peerA} ⊓ ∃theme.{fragment0001} </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern’’ ≡ Pattern’ ⊓ ( ( ≥ 3 recipient) ⊔ ∃recipient.( ¬ {peerB, peerC, peerD}) ) </li></ul>Scenario Agree Disagree
  28. 28. Implementation Scenario [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment02 ; recipient :peerB ] Copy Pattern ’ [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment01; recipient :peerC, :peerD ] Pattern’’ [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment01; recipient :peerB , :peerC, :peer E ] Allowed
  29. 29. Evaluation <ul><li>Put into practice: SemDRMS Semantic Digital Rights Management Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled P2P metadata diffusion </li></ul></ul>Peer A SemDRM S copy make available Licenses Store DL Reasoner
  30. 30. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>N K S N N N N S TABLE OF CONTENTS
  31. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>Concentrate on semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology , more expressivity </li></ul><ul><li>Include copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate implementation and interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DL reasoners for license checking </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Future Work <ul><li>Full SemDRMS based on OWL-DL Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Mappings to Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-21 REL Ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMA/ODRL Ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security and trust through RDF signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Human-readable by Controlled Natural Languages </li></ul><ul><li>XML Semantics Reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(XSD2OWL + XML2RDF) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention Roberto García [email_address]