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Copyright Management in the Web 3

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Semantic Web and Blockchain for Decentralized and Web-wide Content Management in the Era of Social Media

Digitalisation and the web have made it difficult for content owners to manage their rights, keep track of how their content is used and paid for. Creators also struggle to be paid royalties in a timely way. While changes are needed, a balance is required so that creativity is not stifled with a resulting loss to society. These challenges require mechanisms that scale to the Web but take into account the subtleties of the underlying copyright regimes, including moral rights, fair use and other exceptions.

We propose using Web 3.0 technologies - ranging from semantic technologies to blockchain. Semantic technologies provide knowledge representation tools capable of modelling copyright and enable computer-supported rights management. Blockchain with smart contracts makes it possible to both register copyright and record transactions in a trustless environment while providing for automatic execution of the smart contract’s terms.

Together, semantic representations like Copyright Ontology smart contracts provide a promising foundation to build a decentralised platform capable of dealing with rights management at the Web scale and enable new business models that better accommodate copyright in the era of social media.

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Copyright Management in the Web 3

  1. 1. Copyright Management in the Web 3.0 Semantic Web and Blockchain for Decentralized and Web-wide Content Management in the Era of Social Media Rosa Gil & Roberto García Department of Commercial Law Seminar Business School, University of Auckland July 12th, 2018
  2. 2. GRIHO Human-Computer Interaction & Data Integration Research Group Department of Computer Science and Industrial Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Research and Innovation in Sustainability Universitat de Lleida, Spain The Interface adapts the System to the User From
  3. 3. Team Roberto García Director Associate Professor Rosa Gil Associate Professor Juan Manuel Gimeno Assistant Professor Toni Granollers Associate Professor Marta Oliva Associate Professor Montserrat Sendín Associate Professor Juan Enrique Garrido Visiting Professor Jordi Virgili PhD Student part-time Aitor Corchero PhD Student in-company (Eurecat) Albert Berga Researcher Gerard Rovira Researcher MSc Student Marc Ribalta Researcher BSc Student
  4. 4. Research Lines Human- Computer Interaction User Experience Data Integration (Big Data) Information Architecture Web 3.0 (Semantic) Knowledge Engineering Interaction Paradigms Usability and Accessibility Adaptative User Interfaces User Centred Design
  5. 5. Some Recent Projects and Research Lines • InVID: In Video Veritas Verification of Social Media Video Content for the News Industry European Union’s Horizon 2020 – 2016-2018 • MedISys Media Monitoring for Plant Health Threats Identification and Reporting European Food Safety Authority – 2013-2016 • MediaMixer Community and Networking for the Remixing of Online Media European Union’s FP7 – 2012-2014 • InDAGuS Infrastructures for Sustainable Open Government Data with Geospatial Features Spanish Government – 2013-2015 • Emotion Recognition using biometrics • Ethics and Artificial Intelligence • Web 3.0 – Semantic Web + Blockchain
  6. 6. Motivation • Why copyright management on the Web is more important than ever? • And why Digital Rights Management isn’t enough? • Why semantic technologies seem a good choice for Web- scale copyright management? • What can blockchain technologies, and particularly smart contracts, contribute to Web-wide copyright management?
  7. 7. Scenario • Web media business models go beyond digital version of “copy/distribute” vinyl, cassette, CD, DVD,… • New revenue streams: • Growing: streaming (Spotify, Pandora, Netflix, Hulu…) • Promising: big scale remixing (make money if others reuse your content), User Generated Content (UGC)
  8. 8. Scenario • UGC remixing copyrighted media © ©
  9. 9. Scenario AudioID © ©VideoID match match match
  10. 10. Scenario “As of July 2016, YouTube has paid out two billion dollars to rightsholders who have chosen to monetize claims since Content ID first launched in 2007” YouTube by the numbers - https://www.youtube.com/yt/about/press/ © Block Choices: Track Monetize match
  11. 11. Scenario • What if more than one ownership claim? • If disputed, no one can monetize ©© match match
  12. 12. Scenario • Are we sure we can claim? • Do we own that particular copy? • In that territory? • Also streaming on YouTube? • Does the artist authorise YouTube? • … DRM  Copyright Management
  13. 13. Scenario …1000s of pieces of registered content… …1000s of videos on YouTube… • Copyright Decision Support System: • Disputes with Media.com on A and B, can we claim? • Trade A for B with Media.com (both win, start to get revenue) A B
  14. 14. Scenario • Copyright Decision Support System requirements: • Fine grained • Scalable (largely automatized) • Takes into account: • Contracts “…all rights on the live version but studio version just in the US.” • Policies “…artist does not want his music together with violent images”. • Rights Expression Languages DDEX metadata: <UseType>OnDemandStream</UseType> <TerritoryCode>Worldwide</TerritoryCode> ...
  15. 15. Media Fragment Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid making available our work together with war images” Digital Operations (DDEX) “Bullet In A Bible” – Green Day <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15</StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>OnDemandStream </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet</DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US</TerritoryCode>... Monetize “Bullet in a Bible” in YouTube.com? Digital Operations says YES but we should check Green Day’s contract… Scenario
  16. 16. Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... ddex:AdSupported Streaming with http://youtube.com what Isrc:USREV0500293 ? Scenario
  17. 17. Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... ddex:AdSupported Streaming dbpedia:Green_Day what Isrc:USREV0500293 with ddex:Internet Rights Language Mapping ddex:AdSupported Streaming with http://youtube.com author what Isrc:USREV0500293 ? is a Semantic Reasoner Scenario
  18. 18. Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid making available our work together with war content” Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... ddex:AdSupported Streaming dbpedia:Green_Day what Isrc:USREV0500293 with ddex:Internet Rights Language Mapping Rights Builder User Interface ddex:AdSupported Streaming with http://youtube.com author what Isrc:USREV0500293 ? is a Semantic Reasoner Scenario
  19. 19. Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid making available our work together with war content” Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... dbpedia:Category:War cro:MakeAvailable ddex:AdSupported Streaming what schema:CreativeWork author dbpedia:Green_Day part ofschema:CreativeWork topic what Isrc:USREV0500293 with ddex:Internet Rights Language Mapping Rights Builder User Interface ddex:AdSupported Streaming with http://youtube.com author what Isrc:USREV0500293 subClassOf ? is a Semantic Reasoner
  20. 20. Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid making available our work together with war content” Digital Operations (DDEX) “Bullet In A Bible” – Green Day <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... part of dbpedia:Category:Syrian_civil_war Semantic Media Annotation Seeing Syria's War Through the Lens by SOPHIA JONES - October 09, 2012 http://www.npr.org dbpedia:Category:War topic broader cro:MakeAvailable ddex:AdSupported Streaming what schema:CreativeWork author dbpedia:Green_Day part ofschema:CreativeWork topic what Isrc:USREV0500293 sameAs with ddex:Internet Rights Language Mapping Rights Builder User Interface ddex:AdSupported Streaming with http://youtube.com author what Isrc:USREV0500293 subClassOf ? is a Semantic Reasoner
  21. 21. Proposal • Post-DRM standardisation difficulties (e.g. ISO/IEC or W3C) • Web open and heterogeneous • Business models beyond copy and distribute • DRM just about access control, Copyright is much more complex • Requires higher level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) • Concentrate on the concepts, not how they are expressed formalise meaning  SEMANTICS World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - ODRL “Duplicate” Reproduction Right Copy ISO/IEC MPEG-21 “Adapt” Creative Commons “Reproduction” Copyright
  22. 22. From Controlled Vocabularies…to Ontologies INCREASE EXPRESSIVENESS Features Controlled Vocabularies Synonyms Taxonomies Thesaurus Ontologies Control Ambiguity X X X X Control Synonym X X X X Hierarchical Relations X X X Associative Relations X X Custom Relations X
  23. 23. Creation lifecycle • Sample: broadcast of a serial adapted from a literary work • A creator adapts the original literary work Victor Hugo’s “Les Miserables”, to produce a serial. The resulting adaptation to a serial is realised as a script that is performed by some actors, including Gerard Depardieu, and recorded into a motion picture. This motion picture is finally broadcasted to users who can tune the resulting communication.
  24. 24. Creation lifecycle • Sample: webcast of a composition recording • A composer writes down a music sheet for her new composition, which is published as sheet prints. Moreover, it is played in a studio to record a master which is later made available as a webcast.
  25. 25. IFLA's FRBR Creation Model • International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) • Most commonly referenced creation model • Work: abstract entity; no material object. Recognised through its realisations or expressions • Expression: the intellectual or artistic realisation of a Work • In the form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc., or any combination of such forms • Manifestation: the physical embodiment of an Expression of a Work • Manuscripts, books, periodicals, maps, posters, sound recordings, films,... • Item: a single exemplar of a Manifestation • Enables us to identify individual copies of a Manifestation separately
  26. 26. IFLA's FRBR Creation Model Limitations • Other proposals, most based on FRBR, same problems • Example: MPEG-21 Media Value Chain Ontology Recording of the broadcast? ! !? ? ?
  27. 27. Copyright Ontology Creation Model • Based on fundamental ontological distinction • Abstract: intangible • Object: can be defined independent of time (includes digital objects) • Process: happens, temporal stages (action, event,…) Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Abstract Objects Processes
  28. 28. Copyright Ontology Creation Model • Capable of modelling the previous value chain examples
  29. 29. Copyright Ontology Action Model • Also capture the dynamic part of the value chain • The actions performed by value chain participants • Plus consumer actions: • Buy, Attend, Access, Play, Tune,… • Plus licensing actions: • Agree/Disagree • Transfer, Attribute,… Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables
  30. 30. Copyright Ontology Action Model Creator Actor Producer Broadcaster User Motion PictureScript Adaptation Performance manifest perform record Communication broadcastadapt Literary Work tune
  31. 31. Copyright Ontology Action Model Role Kind Main Role Description who schema:agent The direct performer or driver of the action (animate or inanimate) schema:participant Other co-agents that participated in the action indirectly, for instance a recipient what schema:object The object upon which the action is carried out schema:result The result produced in the action where schema:location Where an action takes place schema:fromLocation The original location of the object or the agent before the action schema:toLocation The final location of the object or the agent after the action when schema:startTime When the action started or the time it is expected to start schema:endTime When the action finished or the time it is expected to end pointInTime The point in time when the action happens duration The amount of time the action requires to complete with schema:instrument The object that helps the agent perform the action why aim The reason or objective of the action how manner The way the action is carried out if condition Something that must hold or happen before the action starts then consequence Something that must hold or happen after the action is completed Who? What? When? Where? What? With? • Model full details of an action • Its dimensions like as a verb in a sentence: who performs it, what is manipulated, when, where…
  32. 32. Copyright Ontology Rights Model • Basic Rights Model based on generic set of rights inspired by WIPO1 agreements • Can fit more specific rights systems • Define restrictions on associated copyright actions and dimensions (who? what? when? how? …) EU Copyright Directive Publisher’s Rights? 1 World Intellectual Property Organization
  33. 33. Copyright Ontology Rights Model • Basic association of rights to governed actions
  34. 34. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 Agree Economic Rights what who Composer Publisher who what Manifestation: Composition Transfer who recipient condition what Amount: Currency
  35. 35. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 Agree Reproduction Right what who Publisher who what Manifestation: Composition Sheet Music Printer Distribution Right what who what Instance: Sheet Music result condition
  36. 36. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 Agree Economic Rights what who Publisher who what Manifestation: Composition Foreign Subpublisher Territory: New Zealand where condition
  37. 37. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 Agree Adaptation Right what who Publisher who what Manifestation: Composition Movie Studio Manifestation: Movie Master result condition
  38. 38. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 Agree Performwhat who what Manifestation: Composition Record Company Fixation Right what who what Performance: Music result result Performer Recording: Master Reproduction Right what who what Instance: Copy result condition
  39. 39. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights William Fisher (February, 2016) CopyrightX Lecture 3: The Subject Matter of Copyright, Slide 4. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0 • Streaming: • Blanket License – Broadcast • Non-interactive streams, • Pandora, Sirius XM,… • Mechanical License – Reproduction • Interactive streams • Spotify, Soundcloud, Apple Music,…
  40. 40. Copyright Ontology USA Music Rights – Public Performance Right William Fisher (March, 2015) CopyrightX Lecture 8: Rights of Distribution and Performance, Slide 8. Harvard Law School. Licensed CC-BY 4.0
  41. 41. Semantic Web Approach • Capable of representing rights statements but… • Main limitations of the Copyright Ontology: • Trust on statements • Incentives to use it to make copyright statements Kingsley Uyi Idehen (Jul, 2017) Semantic Web Layer Cake Tweak, Explained. https://medium.com/openlink-software-blog/semantic-web-layer-cake-tweak-explained-6ba5c6ac3fab
  42. 42. Verification of Social Media Video Content for the News Industry Objective: identify truthful videos (not “fake news”) for its reuse by the news industry Universitat de Lleida Participation: GRIHO & Law Department researchers Role: Leading WP4 – Rights Management H2020 ICT 19(b)-2015 Technologies for creative industries, social media and convergence InVID • MediaMixer: video fragmentation, media fragment applications & industry outreach Significant Infrastructure Through its involvement in the aforementioned projects, the team has built an infrastructure of considerable computational capacity (150+ cores, 900+GB RAM, 70+ TB storage) and developed a sophisticated distributed architecture for data collection and indexing, as well as a variety of cutting edge data mining and retrieval, video fragmentation and annotation, and machine learning algorithms. The team is therefore in excellent position to support a wide range of data collection, mining, analysis and indexing needs within InVID. 2 Modul Technology GmbH (MOD) Organisation Profile MODUL Technology GmbH is the non-profit technology and innovation company of MODUL University Vienna, a private Austrian university founded in 2007. MODUL University Vienna is funded by the Austrian Chamber of Commerce and its goal is to educate the next generation of business leaders in the domains of new media, tourism, governance, sustainability and international management. The Technology GmbH enables both university faculty (as technology experts) and hired researchers/developers to work on near-to- market R&D with a close collaboration with the University itself (including sharing of MODUL University IP) and support of existing and future University spin-offs (by agreements to license IP with commercialisation potential to for-profit companies). Technology experts will contribute via the company to TV InSight from the Department of New Media Technology, which conducts cross-disciplinary research on knowledge acquisition, semantic Web annotation, human-computer interaction, data analytics, natural language processing and multimedia description and linking. MODUL Technology GmbH is 100% owned by MODUL University Vienna and shares IP from and to the University. University faculty can participate in innovation projects through the company and high value IP could be licensed to a new for-profit spin-off. Role in the project This proposal version was submitted by Vasileios Mezaris on 14/04/2015 16:45:55 CET . Issued by the Participant Portal Submission Service. support the extraction of marketing information, and aid decision makers in optimizing their branding and marketing strategies. (Swiss KTI | CHF 480,000 | 2013-2015 | www.htwchur.ch/comet) Significant Infrastructure webLyzard operates a modular, layered and highly scalable infrastructure that has proven its accuracy and reliability over many years. The system architecture includes a portfolio of backend services including content acquisition, document enrichment and annotation, filtering, service orchestration, load balancing, etc. Frontend services include rendering and portlet synchronisation, data export in multiple formats, search and crowdsourcing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), visualization modules based on SVG and the D3.js. These services operate in a virtualized Linux Ubuntu environment on top of Intel Xeon-based industry standard servers, which is straightforward to scale up or migrate to different host environments. The system architecture supports but does not require cloud-based solutions. 6 Condat AG (Condat) Organisation Profile The Condat AG is a medium sized company located in the centre of Berlin developing innovative solutions for leading European companies of the Media/TV sector. Condat is one of the main German providers for program planning, newsroom support, video on demand and media asset management for major public and private TV-broadcasters (e.g. RBB, ARD, MDR, WDR, NDR, n-tv, arte, Deutsche Welle, ZDF). Condat has participated (co-ordinating or member) in 8 EU-Projects from FP3 to FP7 as partner and coordinator. In addition, Condat provides for TV broadcasters video on-demand via internet, integration of feedback and content from social networks, advanced retrieval, and user profile evaluation. We apply semantic search engines to retrieve and analyze large, heterogeneous data sources distributed over the network. Condat covers the entire Plan – Build – Run cycle and offers scalable cloud based solutions. The development of server and client side applications uses J2EE, Web- and Open Source – technology. Project and quality management is certified according DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. 8 Agence France-Presse (AFP) Organisation Profile Agence France-Presse (AFP) is a global news agency, delivering fast, accurate, in-depth coverage of the events shaping our world from wars and conflicts to politics, sports, entertainment and the latest breakthroughs in health, science and technology. With 2,900 staff and stringers of 80 nationalities, spread across 165 countries, AFP covers the world 24 hours a day in six languages, delivering the news in video, text, pictures, multimedia and graphics. AFP produces roughly 5.000 text dispatches, 2.000 photos, 80 • Denis Teyssoum, “GLOCAL: Pro-am collaboration in the news production”, Proc. Workshop on RecognisingandTrackingEvents ontheWeb and in RealLife, 6thHellenic Conference on Artificial Intelligence(SETN2010),Athens,Greece. RelevantProjects • Glocal–FP7projectonorganizingmediabyeventswithlocalandaglobaldimensions.Content-based imageretrievaltechniques wereusedamongothers duringtheproject tocluster picturesrelatedtothe sameevent. 9 DeutscheWelle(DW) This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 687786 – In Video Veritas Jan 2016 - Dec 2018
  43. 43. InVID Copyright Management • Support reuse request generation and negotiation • User interface to model request terms as Copyright Ontology actions • Content owners can respond with updated conditions • Keep track of negotiation steps • Check intended uses against existing Reuse Agreements • Export agreement terms as semantic representations (JSON-LD) • Register agreements in blockchain • Independent parties monitor blockchain for agreements • Load agreements into Semantic Repository • Check intended uses against agreements • Reasoning about reuse terms Rights Database InVID Rights Management Semantic Repository Semantic Copyright Management Blockchain Events Agreements Time Stamping Accountability Auditability Tamper Proof Blockchain
  44. 44. InVID and Blockchain • Use Ethereum Smart Contracts • Blockchain as a global shared computer • Immutable transactions (executed in all nodes) • Encode rules guaranteed to execute • Smart contract to store semantic agreements • Participants digitally sign them • Identity management using uPort mobile app • Optional: remuneration using cryptocurrency wallet • Proof of existence of the agreement, timestamp • Verifiable independently of InVID https://www.uport.me Icons by https://fontawesome.com/license
  45. 45. Future Work • Smart contract for copyright registration • Upload manifestation and facilitate content identification and disputes resolution • Smart contract for usage tracking • Register copyright use • Track uses so they can be independently verified against registered agreements • Creators can also keep contact with fans • E.g.: loyalty programs based on tokens as proof of purchase • Automatic royalties splitting based on chain of registered agreements • Payments using cryptocurrency • Smart contracts for dispute resolution • Enable law experts participation through incentive and reputation mechanisms Icons by https://fontawesome.com/license
  46. 46. Related Work • Artists’ initiatives to regain connection with fans and fair revenues • Bjork, Imogen Heap, Pitbull,… • Spotify, Pandora, Apple, YouTube,… shield artists from fans and provide low revenues per stream • YouTube 25% of music streaming, pays $1 per 1000 plays (Spotify $7) 1 • Some blockchain music start-ups • Ujo Creator’s Portal, upload and purchase music using cryptocurrency • Jaak global registry of copyright data curated by specialised guardians, rewarded for the authority provided 1 The Washington Post (July, 2017) Why musicians are so angry at the world’s most popular music streaming service. http://wapo.st/2t09dM2 https://imogen2.surge.sh
  47. 47. Blockchain Can Legally Authenticate Evidence, Chinese Judge Rules • A court in China's Hangzhou city has ruled that evidence authenticated with blockchain technology can be presented in legal disputes. The judge commented: • "The court thinks it should maintain an open and neutral stance on using blockchain to analyze individual cases. We can't exclude it just because it's a complex technology. Nor can we lower the standard just because it is tamper-proof and traceable. ... In this case, the usage of a third-party blockchain platform that is reliable without conflict of interests provides the legal ground for proving the intellectual infringement." • According to data from the court, the case was filed in January by Huatai Yimei, a Hangzhou-based media company, against a Shenzhen-based technology firm for copyright infringement. • During the legal procedure, the plaintiff showed screen-captured images of web pages and text that it considered unauthorized usage by the Shenzhen company. Previously, Huatai Yimei had encoded the images, website sources codes and other evidence through a third-party site named baoquan.com – a blockchain-based evidence deposition platform – and attempted to use that evidence in the proceedings. • Even if the disputed media assets should be taken down at a later stage, the court decided that evidence stored on the blockchain is sufficient to be legally accepted by the court. As such, the judge ruled in favor of the plaintiff. • The decision marks one of the first officially sanctioned use cases for blockchain in legal proceedings. Wolfie Zhao (Jun 28, 2018) https://www.coindesk.com/blockchain-can-legally-authenticate-evidence-chinese-judge-rules/
  48. 48. Baidu Launches Blockchain-Based Image Rights Protection Platform • Chinese internet search giant Baidu has launched a digital image property rights management platform based on Blockchain, the company announced Wednesday, April 11. • The service, called Totem, timestamps each submitted original image with a real-time identity and other user data, storing it on a traceable and immutable Blockchain. • According to the Baidu’s announcement, the company’s existing artificial intelligence capacities – including image analysis and semantic understanding – will feed into the construction of unique image tags, with the underlying Blockchain system allowing circulating images to be traced, reproduced, and monitored in order to substantiate or refute allegations of copyright infringement. • Baidu announced that traditional stock photo services – including Getty Images partner, Visual China Group – have already moved onto the platform. • Baidu’s Totem comes hot on the trail of Kodak’s own image rights management Blockchain platform, announced in Jan. 2018. It similarly uses a digital ledger to establish rights ownership, and also offers a KODAKCoin token for the online photo community to pay for and receive dividends on their image licenses. Marie Huillet (Apr 12, 2018) https://cointelegraph.com/news/chinas-google-baidu-launches-blockchain-based-image-rights-protection-platform
  49. 49. Beyond: Organisations in the Blockchain https://blog.aragon.one
  50. 50. Beyond: life forms in the Blockchain? http://www.okhaos.com/plantoids/
  51. 51. Thank you for your attention Questions? Contact: roberto.garcia@udl.cat rgil@diei.udl.cat http://rhizomik.net/~roberto/ http://rhizomik.net/~rosa/ Slides: https://www.slideshare.net/rogargon/copyright-management-in-the-web-3

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