Food chains and food webs

  • 4,894 views
Uploaded on

Basic descriptions of food chains and food webs. Energy flow in ecological communities is emphasized (I hope)

Basic descriptions of food chains and food webs. Energy flow in ecological communities is emphasized (I hope)

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,894
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6

Actions

Shares
Downloads
364
Comments
2
Likes
10

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • \n
  • In some food chains, the energy comes from gasses produced by volcanos.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n

Transcript

  • 1. Food chainsMoving matter and energy through a community
  • 2. Food chains start with producers Producers absorb energy from the environment (sun) and convert it to chemical energyLeaf - cc licensed flickr photo by epSos.de: http://flickr.com/photos/epsos/3384297473/
  • 3. Producers are eaten by herbivores Herbivores are also known as primary consumers. Consumers eat other organisms to get energy.Saddleback caterpillar - cc licensed flickr photo by cotinis: http://flickr.com/photos/pcoin/2282362342/
  • 4. Herbivores are eaten by carnivores Carnivores get energy by eating other animals. Consumers that eat herbivores are secondary consumersOrange eyed green tree frog - cc licensed flickr photo by rainforest_harley: http://flickr.com/photos/rainforest_harley/232636845/
  • 5. Carnivores can be eaten by other carnivores Carnivores that eat other carnivores are called higher order carnivores. A tertiary consumer eats secondary consumers.Common garter snake 1 - cc licensed flickr photo by C.A. Mullhaupt: http://flickr.com/photos/mullhaupt/2268466823/
  • 6. 4th degree consumers 4th degree consumers eat tertiary consumers.Great horned owl - cc licensed flickr photo by .imelda: http://flickr.com/photos/imelda/1315548794/
  • 7. Trophic level
  • 8. Trophic levelOrganisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 9. Trophic levelProducersOrganisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 10. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers (herbivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 11. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers (herbivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 12. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 13. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.
  • 14. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.Organisms can also be classified by trophic level(position within a food chain):
  • 15. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.Organisms can also be classified by trophic level(position within a food chain): Producers are trophic level 1
  • 16. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.Organisms can also be classified by trophic level(position within a food chain): Producers are trophic level 1 Herbivores are trophic level 2
  • 17. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.Organisms can also be classified by trophic level(position within a food chain): Producers are trophic level 1 Herbivores are trophic level 2 Secondary consumers are trophic level 3
  • 18. Trophic levelProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)Organisms can be classified by food source (herbivore,carnivore, omnivore.Organisms can also be classified by trophic level(position within a food chain): Producers are trophic level 1 Herbivores are trophic level 2 Secondary consumers are trophic level 3 etc.
  • 19. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)
  • 20. Something’s missingProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)
  • 21. Something’s missingProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Cellulose decomposers slide 1 - cc licensed flickr photo by INeedCoffee / CoffeeHero: http://flickr.com/photos/digitalcolony/3317136736/
  • 22. Something’s missingProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Cellulose decomposers slide 1 - cc licensed flickr photo by INeedCoffee / CoffeeHero: http://flickr.com/photos/digitalcolony/3317136736/Decomposers break down the bodies of producers andconsumers. This is necessary for the recycling of matter inan ecosystem.
  • 23. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)
  • 24. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) The 10% rule: At each step in the food chain, about 10% gets passed along to the next step.
  • 25. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) The 10% rule: At each step in the food chain, about 10% gets passed along to the next step.
  • 26. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) The 10% rule: At each step in the food chain, about 10% gets passed along to the next step.
  • 27. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) The 10% rule: At each step in the food chain, about 10% gets passed along to the next step.
  • 28. Energy flows through a food chainProducers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) The 10% rule: At each step in the food chain, about 10% gets passed along to the next step.
  • 29. Where does the other 90% of the energy go?Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)
  • 30. Where does the other 90% of the energy go?Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Used by organism Lost to environment as heat. Passed along to decomposers.
  • 31. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores)
  • 32. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Food Chain Big ideas
  • 33. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Food Chain Big ideas All energy in a food chain is absorbed by producers
  • 34. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Food Chain Big ideas All energy in a food chain is absorbed by producers Matter is recycled by decomposers
  • 35. Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers 4th degree consumers (herbivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) (carnivores) Food Chain Big ideas All energy in a food chain is absorbed by producers Matter is recycled by decomposers Energy flows through a food chain; 10% is passed along at each step
  • 36. Food WebsMapping out predator-prey relationships
  • 37. Food chains represent flow of energy in acommunity but over-simplify the predator-preyrelationships. Most organisms have multiple preyspecies and multiple predators (they eat manydifferent things and get eaten by many differentthings).
  • 38. A food web shows multiple food chains withina community. cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 39. Some (parts of) food webs consist of food chains thatbegin with plants. These are called grazing webs cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 40. Some (parts of) food webs consist of food chains thatbegin with plants. These are called grazing webs cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 41. Some (parts of) food webs consist of food chains thatbegin with dead organic matter. These are called detritalwebs cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 42. Some (parts of) food webs consist of food chains thatbegin with dead organic matter. These are called detritalwebs cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 43. There is often overlap between the grazing and detrital food webs.Which populations here are part of both webs? Which are only in thegrazing web? Which are only in the detrital web? cc licensed flickr photo by cicadas: http://flickr.com/photos/cicada/2569385115/
  • 44. Food Web stability In some food webs, the populations in the web can survive if one species is removed. Other populations can fill in as prey or predator species. A food web with more populations in it and/or more links between populations is less likely to collapse due to the removal of one species. (A community collapses when all/most of the populations in the community suffer sudden, dramatic population decrease.) In some communities, there are species that, if removed, can lead to collapse of the entire community. These are called keystone species. cc licensed flickr photo by Martin LaBar (going on hiatus): http://flickr.com/photos/martinlabar/3376987854/
  • 45. Pyramid of NumbersVisually represents # oforganisms at each trophiclevel in a community
  • 46. Pyramid of NumbersVisually represents # oforganisms at each trophiclevel in a community
  • 47. Pyramid of NumbersVisually represents # oforganisms at each trophiclevel in a communityWhich trophic levelhas the greatestnumber? Why?
  • 48. Pyramid of biomassVisually represents thetotal mass of allorganisms at eachtrophic level
  • 49. Pyramid of biomassVisually represents thetotal mass of allorganisms at eachtrophic levelWhy is a pyramidof biomass a betterrepresentation?
  • 50. Pyramid of biomass is a betterrepresentation because:If one of the trophic levelsconsists of a few largeorganisms, it does notrepresent the amount of foodenergy stored at that level. Thepyramid of biomass shows thenumber of food moleculesstored at the trophic levels.