Objective Three: The Interdependence of Organisms and the Environment (Biology)

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Objective Three: The Interdependence of Organisms and the Environment (Biology)

  1. 1. Plants have three organ systems• Roots: absorb water and mineral, and anchors plants to the ground• Stem: supports leaves and branches • Xylem and Phloem run like a plumbing system through the stem and connects roots to the leaves• Leaves: main organs of plants that conduct photosynthesis: • intercepts sunlight, captures carbon dioxide, and stores energy in the form of glucose • releases oxygen into the air in a process called transpiration
  2. 2. • The chloroplast in plants use the energy in sunlight to make a sugar called glucose. Plants energy from glucose.• Animals get energy from eating plants or eating animals that eat plants. • The process by which cells break down glucose (a sugar) to produce energy
  3. 3. • Population: a group of organisms that belong to the same species• Species: a group of organisms that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
  4. 4. webs, arrows always● The feeding relationships in an ecosystem can be shown in a Energy flows in one direction through an ecosystem. Green plants point from the organism food web, which consists of many interconnected food chains. convert the sun’s energy to food energy (potential chemical energy). that is consumed to the● All food chains and food webs begin with producers. consumer. Arrows show the plants are the next step. These animals are eaten Animals that eat by other animals. At each level in a food chain, consumers convert the flow of matter and● Energy moves through ecosystems in food chains and food webs energy. food energy to mechanical energy, which is used for activities some every time an organism eats another organism. such as running and breathing. However, much of the energy stored in● • An interactive systemRemember! includes the physical environment Energy cannot be recycled. that food is used for metabolic processes, such as maintaining a constant body temperature. and the organismsMetabolismWeb to all theretransferredabout 10 percent ofInthe energy atfor instance, nearly half of thatrefers chemical live theFood reactions Partial African Grassland In fact, only is to the next level. mammals, any level in a food chain that take place in an the energy obtained from food is lost to the environment as heat. This organism. is why there are usually only four levels in a food chain. Only rarely Scavengers is there enough energy available to support a fifth level. An energy Vultures pyramid shows the relative amount of energy available at each level. Carnivores Lions Cheetahs Energy Pyramid Herbivores Carnivores that eat carnivores Zebras Baboons Impalas Giraffes Producers Grasses Acacia trees Carnivores that eat herbivores Decomposers Fungi Bacteria HerbivoresThis grassland food web is made up of producers, consumers (herbivores,carnivores, and scavengers), and decomposers. Scavengers such asvultures feed on the remains of dead animals. Decomposers such as Producersbacteria and fungi decompose dead organisms and their wastes. 45 An energy pyramid shows the energy stored at each trophic (feeding) level in an ecosystem.
  5. 5. Organisms don’t live in isolation. All living things depend on theirenvironment and other organisms for survival. The environment hasan effect on individual organisms and on populations of organisms.You need to be able to show that you know this relationship. Remember!A population of organisms—what’s that? • Natural Selection: Individual organisms have differences orA population is a group of organisms that belong to the same species, A species is a group of organisms that are variations-factors such as environment, food, or space can make onelive in the same area, and breed with other individuals in the group.For example, there are populations of humans, populations of sharks, capable of interbreeding and producing fertilepopulations of oak trees, and populations of mosquitoes. variation more favorable than another. Over time, the population offspring.I understand how the environment affects individual organisms, favorable variations. will have individuals with morebut how does the environment affect entire populations? • Evolution: evolution occurs when the genetic make-up of aGood question! Individual organisms have differences, or variations.Factors in the environment such as the amount of food or space population changes over time due to natural selectioncan make one variation more favorable than another. Over time thepopulation will have more individuals with the favorable variation.This process is called natural selection. D you know? id A single swarm of R ocky Mountain locusts was estimated to contain 1 2.5 trillion insects. That’s a large population! ©PhotoDisc ©Paul A. Souders/CORBIS These bears belong to the same species, but they have different fur colors because of genetic variations. The darker fur color may be more favorable in certain environments, and the lighter fur color may be more favorable in others. 37

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