MAC129 / MED102

1
Overview
 Origins
 ‘Golden Age’
 Criminality
 Hacktivism today?

2
 Jim Thomas (2005) ‘The moral ambiguity of

social control in cyberspace: a retroassessment of the ‘golden age’ of hackin...
 Hackers Wanted (aka Can

You Hack It?)

Click

4
From then to today…
 Nissenbaum (2004: 196) claims hackers were

once seen as:

 ‘ardent (if quirky) programmers capable...
Origins…
 1946
 Tech Model Railway

Club
 Massachusetts Institute
of Technology (MIT)
 Hackers Wanted

6
 Robert Bickford (1986) defined a hacker as
 ‘any person who derives joy from discovering

ways to circumvent limitation...
Steve Wozniak clip

8
 Sherry Turkle (1984: 232) defined

the hack as being:

 ‘the Holy Grail. It is a concept which

exists independently of...
Phone-Phreaking
 John Draper (aka

Captain Crunch)
 The Woz and The Blue Box

See: http://myoldmac.net/FAQ/TheBlueBox-1....
1980s…
 Hierarchies develop

Elite hackers

lamerz
11
Trophies
 ‘Computer Underground’ (Meyer, 1989)
 Darknets?
 Hackers began to be perceived as ‘cultural

deviants, law-br...
13
Phrack
editor…

 “A subtle modification about p0f [passive OS

fingerprinting] which [sic] made me finding
documents that...
Phrack
editor…

 “The purpose if this version was to scan

automatically all the windows box found on the
network, mount ...
Golden Age of Hacking
(1980-1990)

16
High profile arrests
 1982 – Roscoe gang (associates

of Kevin Mitnick)
 1983 – Inner Circle
 1984 – ‘414s’

17
Publications
 1984 - 2600: The Hacker Quarterly
 1985 - Phrack
 1987 - Legion of Doom/H Technical Journal
 1988 - P/Hu...
Bulletin Board Systems
(BBSs)









Plover-Net
Swap Shop
Private Sector
Demon Roach
Underground
Ripco
Metal Sho...
IRC
 Jarkko Oikarinen
 1988
 ASCII chatrooms

20
Ethical Hacking?
 Mantra of ‘knowledge wants

to be free’ (Stewart Brand)

 Founder of the WELL
 Moral imperative to sp...
Ethical Hacking?
1. Reject the notion businesses are the only

groups entitled to technology
2. Hacking was central to fre...
A noble pursuit?
 It is a full time hobby, taking countless hours per week to learn,

experiment and execute the art of p...
Criminality
 Hacking as a ‘moral panic’
 Mass media pivotal in changing the meaning

of the term ‘hacker’

24
Media witch-hunts

25
Police raids

26
Craig ‘Knight Lightning’
Neidorf

27
1990s onwards
 First internet worm released in 1988

(!) by Robert Morris
 Hacking became synonymous with
computer crime...
Hacktivism
 Hackers with a political

conscious
 Subverting big business or
corrupt authorities
 Criminal or moral?

29
Different shades

- The script kiddie

30
To consider
 How have the media dealt with or portrayed

recent hacking stories?
 Gary McKinnon?
 George Hotz?
 Anonym...
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Mac129 med102 hackers lecture

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Lecture slides used for MAC129 and MED102 classes
Updated Oct 2013

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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSBzKEdSPMY&list=PLB9553BBB47542B77&index=7
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  • Transcript of "Mac129 med102 hackers lecture"

    1. 1. MAC129 / MED102 1
    2. 2. Overview  Origins  ‘Golden Age’  Criminality  Hacktivism today? 2
    3. 3.  Jim Thomas (2005) ‘The moral ambiguity of social control in cyberspace: a retroassessment of the ‘golden age’ of hacking’  Paul Taylor (2005) ‘From hackers to hacktivists: speed bumps on the global superhighway?’  Both in New Media & Society, Vol 7, No 5 3
    4. 4.  Hackers Wanted (aka Can You Hack It?) Click 4
    5. 5. From then to today…  Nissenbaum (2004: 196) claims hackers were once seen as:  ‘ardent (if quirky) programmers capable of brilliant, unorthodox feats of machine manipulation’ 5
    6. 6. Origins…  1946  Tech Model Railway Club  Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)  Hackers Wanted 6
    7. 7.  Robert Bickford (1986) defined a hacker as  ‘any person who derives joy from discovering ways to circumvent limitations.’ 7
    8. 8. Steve Wozniak clip 8
    9. 9.  Sherry Turkle (1984: 232) defined the hack as being:  ‘the Holy Grail. It is a concept which exists independently of the computer and can best be presented through an example using another technology complex enough to support its own version of hacking and hackers’ 9
    10. 10. Phone-Phreaking  John Draper (aka Captain Crunch)  The Woz and The Blue Box See: http://myoldmac.net/FAQ/TheBlueBox-1.htm 10
    11. 11. 1980s…  Hierarchies develop Elite hackers lamerz 11
    12. 12. Trophies  ‘Computer Underground’ (Meyer, 1989)  Darknets?  Hackers began to be perceived as ‘cultural deviants, law-breaking miscreants or renegade sociopaths’ (Thomas, 2005: 603). 12
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14. Phrack editor…  “A subtle modification about p0f [passive OS fingerprinting] which [sic] made me finding documents that I wasn't supposed to find. Some years ago, I had a period when each month I tried to focus on the security of one country. One of those countries was South-Korea where I owned a big ISP [Internet service provider]. After spending some time to figure out how I could leave the DMZ [a ‘neutral’ network zone] and enter in the LAN [local area network], I succeed thanks to a cisco modification (I like default passwords). Once in the LAN and after hiding my activity (userland > kernelland), I installed a slightly modification of p0f.” 14
    15. 15. Phrack editor…  “The purpose if this version was to scan automatically all the windows box found on the network, mount shared folders and list all files in these folders. Nothing fantastic. But one of the computers scanned contained a lot of files about the other Korea... North Korea. And trust me, there were files that I wasn't supposed to find. I couldn't believe it. I could do the evil guy and try to sell these files for money, but I had (and I still have) a hacker ethic. So I simply added a text file on the desktop to warn the user of the "flaw". After that I left the network and I didn't come back. It was more than 5 years ago so don't ask me the name of the ISP I can't remember” 15
    16. 16. Golden Age of Hacking (1980-1990) 16
    17. 17. High profile arrests  1982 – Roscoe gang (associates of Kevin Mitnick)  1983 – Inner Circle  1984 – ‘414s’ 17
    18. 18. Publications  1984 - 2600: The Hacker Quarterly  1985 - Phrack  1987 - Legion of Doom/H Technical Journal  1988 - P/Hun  1989 - PIRATE  1990 - Computer underground Digest (aka CuD) 18
    19. 19. Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs)         Plover-Net Swap Shop Private Sector Demon Roach Underground Ripco Metal Shop The Phoenix Project Black Ice       The Mentor Phiber Optik Dr Ripco Taran King Hatchet Molly Terminus 19
    20. 20. IRC  Jarkko Oikarinen  1988  ASCII chatrooms 20
    21. 21. Ethical Hacking?  Mantra of ‘knowledge wants to be free’ (Stewart Brand)  Founder of the WELL  Moral imperative to spread info and prevent secrecy (Barlow, 1994)  Cyber-Robin Hood! 21
    22. 22. Ethical Hacking? 1. Reject the notion businesses are the only groups entitled to technology 2. Hacking was central to freedom and resistance to corporate oppression 3. High costs of equipment meant hacking and phreaking were essential for spreading computer literacy  (‘Doctor Crash’, 1986) 22
    23. 23. A noble pursuit?  It is a full time hobby, taking countless hours per week to learn, experiment and execute the art of penetrating multi-user computers: Why do hackers spend a good portion of their time hacking? Some might say it is scientific curiosity, others that it is for mental stimulation. But the true roots of hacker motives run much deeper than that. In this file I will describe the underlying motives of the aware hackers, make known the connections between Hacking, Phreaking, Carding and Anarchy and make known the ‘techno-revolution’ which is laying seeds in the mind of every hacker . . . If you need a tutorial on how to perform any of the above stated methods [of hacking], please read a [Phrack] file on it. And whatever you do, continue the fight. Whether you know it or not, if you are a hacker, you are a revolutionary. [D]on’t worry, you’re on the right side.  (‘Doctor Crash’, 1986) 23
    24. 24. Criminality  Hacking as a ‘moral panic’  Mass media pivotal in changing the meaning of the term ‘hacker’ 24
    25. 25. Media witch-hunts 25
    26. 26. Police raids 26
    27. 27. Craig ‘Knight Lightning’ Neidorf 27
    28. 28. 1990s onwards  First internet worm released in 1988 (!) by Robert Morris  Hacking became synonymous with computer crime  May 2007 – Estonia hacked – Russia?  June 2010 – Stuxnet worm in Iran – Israel? 28
    29. 29. Hacktivism  Hackers with a political conscious  Subverting big business or corrupt authorities  Criminal or moral? 29
    30. 30. Different shades - The script kiddie 30
    31. 31. To consider  How have the media dealt with or portrayed recent hacking stories?  Gary McKinnon?  George Hotz?  Anonymous?  Lulzsec?  Stuxnet? 31

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