Mac129 med102 hackers lecture

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Lecture slides for Level 1 module

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Mac129 med102 hackers lecture

  1. 1. MAC129 / MED102 1
  2. 2. Overview  Origins  ‘Golden Age’  Criminality  Hacktivism today? 2
  3. 3.  Jim Thomas (2005) ‘The moral ambiguity of social control in cyberspace: a retro- assessment of the ‘golden age’ of hacking’  Paul Taylor (2005) ‘From hackers to hacktivists: speed bumps on the global superhighway?’  Both in New Media & Society, Vol 7, No 5 3
  4. 4.  Hackers Wanted (aka Can You Hack It?) 4 Click
  5. 5. From then to today…  Nissenbaum (2004: 196) claims hackers were once seen as:  ‘ardent (if quirky) programmers capable of brilliant, unorthodox feats of machine manipulation’ 5
  6. 6. Origins…  1946  Tech Model Railway Club  Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 6
  7. 7. Steve Wozniak clip 7
  8. 8.  Robert Bickford (1990) defined a hacker as  ‘any person who derives joy from discovering ways to circumvent limitations.’ 8
  9. 9.  Sherry Turkle (1984: 232) defined the hack as being:  ‘the Holy Grail. It is a concept which exists independently of the computer and can best be presented through an example using another technology complex enough to support its own version of hacking and hackers’ 9
  10. 10. Phone-Phreaking  John Draper (aka Captain Crunch)  The Woz and The Blue Box 10
  11. 11. 1980s…  Hierarchies develop 11 Elite hackers lamerz
  12. 12. Trophies  ‘Computer Underground’ (Meyer, 1989)  Darknets?  Hackers began to be perceived as ‘cultural deviants, law-breaking miscreants or renegade sociopaths’ (Thomas, 2005: 603). 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14.  “A subtle modification about p0f [passive OS fingerprinting] which [sic] made me finding documents that I wasn't supposed to find. Some years ago, I had a period when each month I tried to focus on the security of one country. One of those countries was South-Korea where I owned a big ISP [Internet service provider]. After spending some time to figure out how I could leave the DMZ [a ‘neutral’ network zone] and enter in the LAN [local area network], I succeed thanks to a cisco modification (I like default passwords). Once in the LAN and after hiding my activity (userland > kernelland), I installed a slightly modification of p0f.” 14 Phrack editor…
  15. 15. Phrack editor…  “The purpose if this version was to scan automatically all the windows box found on the network, mount shared folders and list all files in these folders. Nothing fantastic. But one of the computers scanned contained a lot of files about the other Korea... North Korea. And trust me, there were files that I wasn't supposed to find. I couldn't believe it. I could do the evil guy and try to sell these files for money, but I had (and I still have) a hacker ethic. So I simply added a text file on the desktop to warn the user of the "flaw". After that I left the network and I didn't come back. It was more than 5 years ago so don't ask me the name of the ISP I can't remember” 15
  16. 16. Golden Age of Hacking (1980-1990) 16
  17. 17. High profile arrests  1982 – Roscoe gang (associates of Kevin Mitnick)  1983 – Inner Circle  1984 – ‘414s’ 17
  18. 18. Publications  1984 - 2600: The Hacker Quarterly  1985 - Phrack  1987 - Legion of Doom/H Technical Journal  1988 - P/Hun  1989 - PIRATE  1990 - Computer underground Digest (aka CuD) 18
  19. 19. Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs)  Plover-Net  Swap Shop  Private Sector  Demon Roach Underground  Ripco  Metal Shop  The Phoenix Project  Black Ice  The Mentor  Phiber Optik  Dr Ripco  Taran King  Hatchet Molly  Terminus 19
  20. 20. IRC  Jarkko Oikarinen  1988  ASCII chatrooms 20
  21. 21. Ethical Hacking?  Mantra of ‘knowledge wants to be free’ (Stewart Brand)  Founder of theWELL  Moral imperative to spread info and prevent secrecy (Barlow, 1994)  Cyber-Robin Hood! 21
  22. 22. Ethical Hacking? 1. Reject the notion businesses are the only groups entitled to technology 2. Hacking was central to freedom and resistance to corporate oppression 3. High costs of equipment meant hacking and phreaking were essential for spreading computer literacy  (‘Doctor Crash’, 1986) 22
  23. 23. A noble pursuit?  It is a full time hobby, taking countless hours per week to learn, experiment and execute the art of penetrating multi-user computers: Why do hackers spend a good portion of their time hacking? Some might say it is scientific curiosity, others that it is for mental stimulation. But the true roots of hacker motives run much deeper than that. In this file I will describe the underlying motives of the aware hackers, make known the connections between Hacking, Phreaking, Carding and Anarchy and make known the ‘techno-revolution’ which is laying seeds in the mind of every hacker . . . If you need a tutorial on how to perform any of the above stated methods [of hacking], please read a [Phrack] file on it. And whatever you do, continue the fight. Whether you know it or not, if you are a hacker, you are a revolutionary. [D]on’t worry, you’re on the right side.  (‘Doctor Crash’, 1986) 23
  24. 24. Criminality  Hacking as a ‘moral panic’  Mass media pivotal in changing the meaning of the term ‘hacker’ 24
  25. 25. Media witch-hunts 25
  26. 26. Police raids 26
  27. 27. Craig ‘Knight Lightning’ Neidorf 27
  28. 28. 1990s onwards  First internet worm released in 1988 (!) by Robert Morris  Hacking became synonymous with computer crime  May 2007 – Estonia hacked – Russia?  June 2010 – Stuxnet worm in Iran – Israel? 28
  29. 29. Hacktivism  Hackers with a political conscious  Subverting big business or corrupt authorities  Criminal or moral? 29

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