Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
The Star Program Powerpoint
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Star Program Powerpoint

5,651

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,651
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
102
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The STAR Program Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research Hoover City Schools August 2008 Presenters: Beth Lyda Rosalou Maxwell
  • 2. Assessment <ul><li>Review Student Learning Profile: Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a profile for each student </li></ul><ul><li>May be in two different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done from observation or from actual direct assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Asked to determine if skills are generalized (student uses skill across two settings and two people) </li></ul>
  • 3. Introduction Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Discrete Trial Training </li></ul><ul><li>Pivotal response training </li></ul><ul><li>Functional routine instruction </li></ul>
  • 4. Curriculum Content Areas <ul><li>Receptive language concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive language concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous language concepts (PRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Routines (FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Academics Concepts (DT) </li></ul><ul><li>Play and social interaction concepts (PRT/FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Program has 3 Levels, going through second grade academics </li></ul>
  • 5. Discrete Trial Training <ul><li>Skills are taught in a logical sequence building on previously learned skills. Concepts taught are identified, then broken down into specific elements for instruction. Each session consists of a series of discrete trials, using a four-step sequence. </li></ul>
  • 6. 10 Components of DT <ul><li>Identify appropriate programs for the child’s current level </li></ul><ul><li>Review the elements of the written discrete trial program </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the basic discrete trial teaching paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and use appropriate reinforcers to motivate the child </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate prompting/shaping/fading techniques when teaching new skills </li></ul>
  • 7. The 10 Components (con.) <ul><li>6. Use the DT Intro procedures to introduce each new skill </li></ul><ul><li>7. Work on appropriate behavior while teaching </li></ul><ul><li>8. Collect data to monitor progress on each step of a program </li></ul><ul><li>9. Use the Pass/revise criteria to determine which step to be teaching </li></ul><ul><li>10. Generalize each new skill learned into the natural environment </li></ul>
  • 8. ABA Instructional Sequence <ul><li>Instructional Cue </li></ul><ul><li>Student Response </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence (generally a reinforcer) </li></ul><ul><li>Pause (inter-trial interval) </li></ul><ul><li>This teaching sequence is used with a curriculum that has scope and sequence with developmental levels of functional skills. </li></ul>
  • 9. Typical DT Trial (correct response) <ul><li>Cue “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Student does correct response </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt-None needed </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequence-Reinforcer (primary + verbal praise) </li></ul><ul><li>(3 correct responses, move on to next level) </li></ul>
  • 10. Error and Correction Procedure Trial Example <ul><li>Cue- “Do X” </li></ul><ul><li>Response-Nothing or incorrect response </li></ul><ul><li>(Use error correction procedure) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Prompt- a. Represent Cue </li></ul><ul><li>b. Teacher prompts correct response </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequence-Reinforce with social praise only (No tangible reinforcer given unless needed to maintain responding) </li></ul>
  • 11. If student makes an error….. <ul><li>Stop and restart trial </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat cue </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt with just enough assistance to get correct response </li></ul><ul><li>R + with social praise only or very little reinforcer, not the big R+ </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat trial (with big R+ available) </li></ul>
  • 12. Examples of adding Prompt to the Cue, (Reinforced Learning Procedure) <ul><li>After 3 errors in a row </li></ul><ul><li>-Note change of prompt level on data sheet </li></ul><ul><li>-Give instructional cue </li></ul><ul><li>-Provide a slight prompt (or just enough of a prompt to get correct response) just following the cue </li></ul><ul><li>-When student get 3/3 move back to “less or no prompt” </li></ul>
  • 13. Physical Prompting Levels (Note these levels on data sheet) <ul><li>Tap Prompt : (touching lightly to initiate or change direction of response) </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Physical Prompt (more than a touch/tap, not a full physical prompt, student does some part of response by themselves) </li></ul><ul><li>Full Physical Prompt (student requires physical prompting throughout response) </li></ul>
  • 14. Examples of Data Collection <ul><li>Demonstration of DT </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of Data Collecting </li></ul>
  • 15. Data Collection Tips <ul><li>Enter data while student is using/consuming reinforcer (pause) </li></ul><ul><li>Try and remember 3 trials and enter the data for all three at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize good tempo-most important </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria-The “three in a row rule” </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize skills by teaching the “when” and the “where” of the new concepts within daily routines </li></ul>
  • 16. Pivotal Response Training (PRT) <ul><li>PRT is also based on the four-step sequence. Trials within PRT are incorporated into the environment in a functional context. During PRT the child chooses the activity or object, and the reinforcer is a natural consequence to the behavior. </li></ul>
  • 17. PRT <ul><li>Behavioral intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching language and play skills </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses weaknesses of DT </li></ul><ul><li>Creates teachable moments in context </li></ul><ul><li>Follows ABA format </li></ul><ul><li>One component of an individualized program </li></ul>
  • 18. Advantages of PRT <ul><li>You can take it with you </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by parent/peers/siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Increases motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased generalization and maintenance of intervention gains </li></ul>
  • 19. The 10 Components of PRT <ul><li>Identify the appropriate program </li></ul><ul><li>Review the elements of the written PRT program </li></ul><ul><li>Review and practice PRT rules of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Implement PRT </li></ul><ul><li>Building and maintaining rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Work on appropriate behavior throughout the session </li></ul>
  • 20. 10 Components (con.) <ul><li>7. Use PRT strategy throughout the child’s day, across people and environments </li></ul><ul><li>8. Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assess progress regularly </li></ul><ul><li>10. Modify level of demand and difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: Leave material in PRT area so child will only “play” with those toys in that area. </li></ul>
  • 21. Structuring the Session <ul><li>The student chooses the toy </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher restricts access to the toy </li></ul><ul><li>The cue/opportunity to respond is presented </li></ul><ul><li>The child responds </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher evaluates the response </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher allows access to the activity </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher observes the student and prepares for the next trial </li></ul><ul><li>Work on behavior throughout the session </li></ul>
  • 22. PRT Throughout the Day <ul><li>Example: Snack </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Reaches for the pretzels in the middle of the snack table </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Blocks student access to the pretzels and waits for a spontaneous request </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Says “eat please” </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Allows the child to take a pretzel. </li></ul>
  • 23. Demonstration <ul><li>PRT Trails </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
  • 24. Functional Routines (FR) <ul><li>Functional routines are predictable events that involve a chain of behaviors. Routines are associated with a functional outcome. Some common routines in which all children engage are: using the restroom, arriving, and eating a snack. The outcome of a routine usually serves as the reinforcer for completing the routine. </li></ul>
  • 25. Demonstration <ul><li>Functional Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>
  • 26. Putting it all Together <ul><li>Assess the student </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the student’s program (Pull program files) </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the day </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize the ideas throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize the ideas for circle time </li></ul><ul><li>Use rotations/visual schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Have a variety of reinforcers available </li></ul>
  • 27. Examples of Teaching Rotations <ul><li>Five Priority Rotations: </li></ul><ul><li>Circle, Centers, or other group routine </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete Trial Rotation (15 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>PRT Rotation (15 min.) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Discrete Trial Rotation (15 min.) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Child Specific Routine </li></ul><ul><li>(restroom use, hand-washing, independent work, table time activity) </li></ul>
  • 28. References <ul><li>Based on STAR Program Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Arick PhD and John Gill MS </li></ul><ul><li>www.starautismprogram.com </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies used in this program meet NCLB and IDEA criteria for the use of scientifically-based strategies of special education programs. </li></ul>

×