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  • 1. The STAR Program Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research Hoover City Schools August 2008 Presenters: Beth Lyda Rosalou Maxwell
  • 2. Assessment
    • Review Student Learning Profile: Level 1
    • Complete a profile for each student
    • May be in two different levels
    • Can be done from observation or from actual direct assessment
    • Asked to determine if skills are generalized (student uses skill across two settings and two people)
  • 3. Introduction Teaching Strategies
    • Discrete Trial Training
    • Pivotal response training
    • Functional routine instruction
  • 4. Curriculum Content Areas
    • Receptive language concepts (DT)
    • Expressive language concepts (DT)
    • Spontaneous language concepts (PRT)
    • Functional Routines (FR)
    • Pre-Academics Concepts (DT)
    • Play and social interaction concepts (PRT/FR)
    • Program has 3 Levels, going through second grade academics
  • 5. Discrete Trial Training
    • Skills are taught in a logical sequence building on previously learned skills. Concepts taught are identified, then broken down into specific elements for instruction. Each session consists of a series of discrete trials, using a four-step sequence.
  • 6. 10 Components of DT
    • Identify appropriate programs for the child’s current level
    • Review the elements of the written discrete trial program
    • Apply the basic discrete trial teaching paradigm
    • Identify and use appropriate reinforcers to motivate the child
    • Use appropriate prompting/shaping/fading techniques when teaching new skills
  • 7. The 10 Components (con.)
    • 6. Use the DT Intro procedures to introduce each new skill
    • 7. Work on appropriate behavior while teaching
    • 8. Collect data to monitor progress on each step of a program
    • 9. Use the Pass/revise criteria to determine which step to be teaching
    • 10. Generalize each new skill learned into the natural environment
  • 8. ABA Instructional Sequence
    • Instructional Cue
    • Student Response
    • Consequence (generally a reinforcer)
    • Pause (inter-trial interval)
    • This teaching sequence is used with a curriculum that has scope and sequence with developmental levels of functional skills.
  • 9. Typical DT Trial (correct response)
    • Cue “Do X”
    • Response-Student does correct response
    • Prompt-None needed
    • 4. Consequence-Reinforcer (primary + verbal praise)
    • (3 correct responses, move on to next level)
  • 10. Error and Correction Procedure Trial Example
    • Cue- “Do X”
    • Response-Nothing or incorrect response
    • (Use error correction procedure)
    • 3. Prompt- a. Represent Cue
    • b. Teacher prompts correct response
    • 4. Consequence-Reinforce with social praise only (No tangible reinforcer given unless needed to maintain responding)
  • 11. If student makes an error…..
    • Stop and restart trial
    • Repeat cue
    • Prompt with just enough assistance to get correct response
    • R + with social praise only or very little reinforcer, not the big R+
    • Repeat trial (with big R+ available)
  • 12. Examples of adding Prompt to the Cue, (Reinforced Learning Procedure)
    • After 3 errors in a row
    • -Note change of prompt level on data sheet
    • -Give instructional cue
    • -Provide a slight prompt (or just enough of a prompt to get correct response) just following the cue
    • -When student get 3/3 move back to “less or no prompt”
  • 13. Physical Prompting Levels (Note these levels on data sheet)
    • Tap Prompt : (touching lightly to initiate or change direction of response)
    • Partial Physical Prompt (more than a touch/tap, not a full physical prompt, student does some part of response by themselves)
    • Full Physical Prompt (student requires physical prompting throughout response)
  • 14. Examples of Data Collection
    • Demonstration of DT
    • Demonstration of Data Collecting
  • 15. Data Collection Tips
    • Enter data while student is using/consuming reinforcer (pause)
    • Try and remember 3 trials and enter the data for all three at one time
    • Utilize good tempo-most important
    • Criteria-The “three in a row rule”
    • Generalize skills by teaching the “when” and the “where” of the new concepts within daily routines
  • 16. Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
    • PRT is also based on the four-step sequence. Trials within PRT are incorporated into the environment in a functional context. During PRT the child chooses the activity or object, and the reinforcer is a natural consequence to the behavior.
  • 17. PRT
    • Behavioral intervention
    • Teaching language and play skills
    • Addresses weaknesses of DT
    • Creates teachable moments in context
    • Follows ABA format
    • One component of an individualized program
  • 18. Advantages of PRT
    • You can take it with you
    • Can be used by parent/peers/siblings
    • Increases motivation
    • Decreases frustration
    • Increased generalization and maintenance of intervention gains
  • 19. The 10 Components of PRT
    • Identify the appropriate program
    • Review the elements of the written PRT program
    • Review and practice PRT rules of interaction
    • Implement PRT
    • Building and maintaining rapport
    • Work on appropriate behavior throughout the session
  • 20. 10 Components (con.)
    • 7. Use PRT strategy throughout the child’s day, across people and environments
    • 8. Collect data
    • 9. Assess progress regularly
    • 10. Modify level of demand and difficulty
    • Suggestion: Leave material in PRT area so child will only “play” with those toys in that area.
  • 21. Structuring the Session
    • The student chooses the toy
    • The teacher restricts access to the toy
    • The cue/opportunity to respond is presented
    • The child responds
    • The teacher evaluates the response
    • The teacher allows access to the activity
    • The teacher observes the student and prepares for the next trial
    • Work on behavior throughout the session
  • 22. PRT Throughout the Day
    • Example: Snack
    • Student: Reaches for the pretzels in the middle of the snack table
    • Teacher: Blocks student access to the pretzels and waits for a spontaneous request
    • Student: Says “eat please”
    • Teacher: Allows the child to take a pretzel.
  • 23. Demonstration
    • PRT Trails
    • Data collection
  • 24. Functional Routines (FR)
    • Functional routines are predictable events that involve a chain of behaviors. Routines are associated with a functional outcome. Some common routines in which all children engage are: using the restroom, arriving, and eating a snack. The outcome of a routine usually serves as the reinforcer for completing the routine.
  • 25. Demonstration
    • Functional Routines
    • Data collection
  • 26. Putting it all Together
    • Assess the student
    • Identify the student’s program (Pull program files)
    • Organize the day
    • Generalize the ideas throughout the day
    • Generalize the ideas for circle time
    • Use rotations/visual schedules
    • Have a variety of reinforcers available
  • 27. Examples of Teaching Rotations
    • Five Priority Rotations:
    • Circle, Centers, or other group routine
    • Discrete Trial Rotation (15 minutes)
    • PRT Rotation (15 min.)
    • 2 nd Discrete Trial Rotation (15 min.)
    • Focused Child Specific Routine
    • (restroom use, hand-washing, independent work, table time activity)
  • 28. References
    • Based on STAR Program Workshop
    • Joel Arick PhD and John Gill MS
    • www.starautismprogram.com
    • Strategies used in this program meet NCLB and IDEA criteria for the use of scientifically-based strategies of special education programs.