Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Instructional Barrier Busters


Published on

Presentation from the 2007 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference by Kit Giddings.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Instructional Barrier Busters

  1. 1. Instructional Barrier Busters Kit Giddings Utah Personnel Development Center
  2. 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>Accommodations & Modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies & Concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Accommodations & Modifications
  4. 4. Accommodations & Modifications <ul><li>Modifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change the curriculum to fit student learning levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only used when required by the IEP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give support but do not change the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all students can benefit from accommodations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Accommodation Tips <ul><li>Turn to your “elbow partner” and discuss the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you identify 3-5 key points you want your students to know well and focus on them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you ask yourself, “What went well? What went badly? Why?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think about what you should change to improve your teaching? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Accommodation Tips, cont. <ul><li>Ask yourself: How can I teach a concept differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Watch how good teachers teach and then learn from them </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to justify what you are teaching and why you are teaching it </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advice From an Expert <ul><li>Richard LaVoy speaks about accommodating children with learning disabilities </li></ul>
  8. 9. Accommodation Tool: Task Analysis <ul><li>What is task analysis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>detailed scope and sequence of skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divides concepts into parts to identify skills needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows students to understand concepts in a step-by-step manner </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Task Analysis Activity <ul><li>Turn to your elbow partner again and discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you use task analysis to explain a concept? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Remember… <ul><li>If the student still isn’t “getting it”, break the concept down even more </li></ul><ul><li>This works with behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>and academic skills </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Curriculum Diamond <ul><li>The Curriculum Diamond (Susan Fister) is one way to accommodate curriculum </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hitler/Nazis Invasion of Poland Pearl Harbor Important Dates Major Battles Key Players Hitler/Nazis Poland Pearl Harbor Isolationism Rationing Axis versus Allied Powers War Freedom Division of Germany Reconstruction of Japan
  13. 14. Creating a Curriculum Diamond <ul><li>Turn to your Curriculum Diamond handout </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into groups of 2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Curriculum Diamond as a team using one concept </li></ul>
  14. 15. What is a Modification? <ul><li>Modifications change the curriculum to fit the learning level of a student </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications should only be used when dictated by an IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Some modifications may inhibit the student from graduating with a full diploma </li></ul>
  15. 16. Remember… <ul><li>Modifications change the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications are usually for students who will not graduate with a full diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications restrict students from learning material necessary to pass end of level tests </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications must match IEP goals </li></ul>
  16. 17. Teaching Strategies & Concepts
  17. 18. “A River Runs Through It” <ul><li>Watch how many teaching styles and strategies this father uses with his sons </li></ul>
  18. 20. Pedagogy versus Content Knowledge <ul><li>Most of you feel confident about your content knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel about your pedagogy skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogy is the art and science of teaching </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. What We Can’t Control <ul><li>Large class sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Class sizes that are too academically diverse (this is why so many reading interventions don’t work) </li></ul><ul><li>By the time you get struggling students, they receive interventions that are too little too late </li></ul>
  20. 22. What We Can Control <ul><li>Amount of seatwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worksheets used as babysitters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity of instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific and interactive instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curriculum that is matched to student needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one size does not fit all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level of participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>break up lectures with activities that involve students </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Good instruction includes: <ul><ul><li>1. A quick, steady pace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Short amounts of time for each activity (ex: give students 30 seconds to respond to their partner instead of 2-3 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Lots of choral responses instead of asking one student at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Taking advantage of teaching moments (when asking for answers, require students to tell you why they are correct instead of saying “good” and moving on) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Lesson Design <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>close </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preview </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Skill or Strategy Instruction <ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the strategy explicit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the steps few in number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the steps clearly stated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can the strategy be visually presented? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. How Do I Put It All Together? <ul><li>Model = I do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt = We do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Check = You do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Anita Archer </li></ul>
  25. 27. Introduce the Concept or Strategy <ul><li>Explain what is being taught & goal of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce rationale for the concept </li></ul><ul><li>Describe steps in the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>This may appear to be time consuming for you but it will pay off big dividends in the long run </li></ul>
  26. 28. Model = I Do It. <ul><li>Show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proceed step-by-step (use task analyses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exaggerate the steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tell students what you are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tell students what you are thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ask for responses </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Prompt = We Do It. <ul><li>Do the behavior at the same time as the students </li></ul><ul><li>Guide the students verbally through the steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>step-do-step-do-step-do-step-do… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gradually fade your prompt </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Check = You Do It. <ul><li>Verify student understanding before independent work begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if a student begins independent work before he/she understands the concept, frustration and failure will set in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carefully monitor student responses </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until students are consistently accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Review often </li></ul>
  29. 31. Deanna’s Box of Tricks
  30. 32. A Brief Review <ul><li>When teaching, ask yourselves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this useful information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it generalize across people, settings, and time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it work? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Thank You! <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>