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Instructional Barrier Busters

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Presentation from the 2007 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference by Kit Giddings.

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Instructional Barrier Busters

  1. 1. Instructional Barrier Busters Kit Giddings Utah Personnel Development Center
  2. 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>Accommodations & Modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies & Concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Accommodations & Modifications
  4. 4. Accommodations & Modifications <ul><li>Modifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change the curriculum to fit student learning levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only used when required by the IEP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give support but do not change the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all students can benefit from accommodations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Accommodation Tips <ul><li>Turn to your “elbow partner” and discuss the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you identify 3-5 key points you want your students to know well and focus on them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you ask yourself, “What went well? What went badly? Why?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think about what you should change to improve your teaching? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Accommodation Tips, cont. <ul><li>Ask yourself: How can I teach a concept differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Watch how good teachers teach and then learn from them </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to justify what you are teaching and why you are teaching it </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advice From an Expert <ul><li>Richard LaVoy speaks about accommodating children with learning disabilities </li></ul>
  8. 9. Accommodation Tool: Task Analysis <ul><li>What is task analysis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>detailed scope and sequence of skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divides concepts into parts to identify skills needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows students to understand concepts in a step-by-step manner </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Task Analysis Activity <ul><li>Turn to your elbow partner again and discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you use task analysis to explain a concept? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Remember… <ul><li>If the student still isn’t “getting it”, break the concept down even more </li></ul><ul><li>This works with behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>and academic skills </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Curriculum Diamond <ul><li>The Curriculum Diamond (Susan Fister) is one way to accommodate curriculum </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hitler/Nazis Invasion of Poland Pearl Harbor Important Dates Major Battles Key Players Hitler/Nazis Poland Pearl Harbor Isolationism Rationing Axis versus Allied Powers War Freedom Division of Germany Reconstruction of Japan
  13. 14. Creating a Curriculum Diamond <ul><li>Turn to your Curriculum Diamond handout </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into groups of 2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Curriculum Diamond as a team using one concept </li></ul>
  14. 15. What is a Modification? <ul><li>Modifications change the curriculum to fit the learning level of a student </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications should only be used when dictated by an IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Some modifications may inhibit the student from graduating with a full diploma </li></ul>
  15. 16. Remember… <ul><li>Modifications change the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications are usually for students who will not graduate with a full diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications restrict students from learning material necessary to pass end of level tests </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications must match IEP goals </li></ul>
  16. 17. Teaching Strategies & Concepts
  17. 18. “A River Runs Through It” <ul><li>Watch how many teaching styles and strategies this father uses with his sons </li></ul>
  18. 20. Pedagogy versus Content Knowledge <ul><li>Most of you feel confident about your content knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel about your pedagogy skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogy is the art and science of teaching </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. What We Can’t Control <ul><li>Large class sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Class sizes that are too academically diverse (this is why so many reading interventions don’t work) </li></ul><ul><li>By the time you get struggling students, they receive interventions that are too little too late </li></ul>
  20. 22. What We Can Control <ul><li>Amount of seatwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worksheets used as babysitters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity of instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific and interactive instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curriculum that is matched to student needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one size does not fit all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level of participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>break up lectures with activities that involve students </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Good instruction includes: <ul><ul><li>1. A quick, steady pace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Short amounts of time for each activity (ex: give students 30 seconds to respond to their partner instead of 2-3 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Lots of choral responses instead of asking one student at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Taking advantage of teaching moments (when asking for answers, require students to tell you why they are correct instead of saying “good” and moving on) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Lesson Design <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>close </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preview </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Skill or Strategy Instruction <ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the strategy explicit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the steps few in number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the steps clearly stated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can the strategy be visually presented? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. How Do I Put It All Together? <ul><li>Model = I do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt = We do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Check = You do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Anita Archer </li></ul>
  25. 27. Introduce the Concept or Strategy <ul><li>Explain what is being taught & goal of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce rationale for the concept </li></ul><ul><li>Describe steps in the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>This may appear to be time consuming for you but it will pay off big dividends in the long run </li></ul>
  26. 28. Model = I Do It. <ul><li>Show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proceed step-by-step (use task analyses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exaggerate the steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tell students what you are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tell students what you are thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ask for responses </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Prompt = We Do It. <ul><li>Do the behavior at the same time as the students </li></ul><ul><li>Guide the students verbally through the steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>step-do-step-do-step-do-step-do… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gradually fade your prompt </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Check = You Do It. <ul><li>Verify student understanding before independent work begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if a student begins independent work before he/she understands the concept, frustration and failure will set in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carefully monitor student responses </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until students are consistently accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Review often </li></ul>
  29. 31. Deanna’s Box of Tricks
  30. 32. A Brief Review <ul><li>When teaching, ask yourselves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this useful information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it generalize across people, settings, and time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it work? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Thank You! <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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