Survey participants-elementary, middle, high school AND # of years teaching 1st, 2nd, 3-5, 5+
Three areas to effective classroom management. During the training series, we will talk about all 3. They all work together to create an effective system
Rules-what is the expected behavior?Routines-how where to you put the equipment, what do you do when you complete your task?
Rules are the explicit statements of teacher expectations for student behavior in a classroom. Expectations are the desired behaviors or outcomes. Rules and expectations identify, define, and operationalize concepts of acceptable behavior. Rules and expectations also provide guidelines for students to monitor their own behavior, and they remind and motivate students to meet certain standards.
70% of PTs are at PBIS schools
Consistent-not conflicting; school rules should be in effect in the classroomUnderstandable-stated clearly so students understand. Vocabulary should be consistent with students’ grade/ability levelDoable-students must be capable of following them (within maturation level and mental/physical abilities)Manageable-easily monitored and not require excessive classroom time to hold students accountableAlways applicable-rules should be consistent across situations; they should not vary or changeStated positively-stating rules positively encourages the desired behavior. Most don’ts can be transformed to do’s—no gum can become leave gum at home
Procedure handout step by step to creating procedures
Take note of how the procedures are broken down step by step.
Talk through 1 with a partner about step by step procedure
Post-big, bold, and beautifulTeach-explicit instructionPractice and provide feedbackReinforce
Give info for timers and/or use timers as an example
9:20-10:24 Positive Reinforcement
When we acknowledge appropriate behavior, we get appropriate behavior. When we acknowledge inappropriate behavior, we get inappropriate behavior. Can you think of a time when your behavior reinforced the behavior you wanted to stop?
If need a translator, ask who at school can call for you and be present during the phone call if possible. Talking points for individual students, tables/groups, and whole class reinforcement.
Level 1-free and frequentUsed everyday in the classroom involving praise, perhaps stickers….easy things the teacher normally deliverLevel 2-intermittentMore powerful and can be awarded as perhaps a student of the week, student of the month, occasional free timeLevel 3-strong and long termYear-long, or month-long types of recognition that students can work for, perhaps a special trip, working in the office, serving as a peer assistant
Talking points for academic vs. behavior rewardsShare out
2 min. talk time about their hierarchy
If the consequences aren’t working, don’t continue to use the same consequenceReminder isn’t “stop doing that” but reteaching
Classroom Management for BTSA Participants
Welcome! While you settle in, Write your class rules on a sheet of pink paper Connect to the internet Download materials from the email from Nicole Darabi Write a postcard to a student and their family to praise him/her for positive behavior
Classroom Management PRESENTED BY: AMY INGERSOLL AND NICOLE DARABI, PBIS COACHES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO: LORI NEWCOMER, PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURITHE IRIS CENTER; VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY
Welcome Introductions Meeting Norms Expectations for tonight- What would you like to take away? What are you hoping to learn? Acknowledgements
Classroom Management System Environmental Behavioral Instructional
Components of a Classroom Positive Behavior Support Plan Set of 3 to 5 Classroom Rules Physical Classroom Layout Procedures/Routines Continuum of positive consequences Continuum of negative consequences Behavior Crisis Plan Medical Crisis Plan
“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we ... teach? punish? Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” - Herner, 1998
Communicating Expectations Rules Routines• Positively Stated • Transitions• Measurable and • Movement observable • Procedures• 3-5
Rules Expectations A rule is an “an An expectation is defined authorative principle set as a “confident or strong for the guide behavior” hope that something will Clearly stated rules happen” identify, define, and The expectation is that operationalize concepts students will develop and of acceptable behavior exhibit the characteristis specific to the classroom that lead to success both setting that are necessary in and out of school (ie. to maintain order and a To be responsible, well-functioning respectful and to do their environment best)
Developing Classroom RulesIt is essential that they: Are positively stated Use simple, specific terms Are measurable and observable Convey expected behavior Most behavioral expectations can be conveyed in five rules or fewer.
Common Classroom Behavior ProblemsProblem Behavior Replacement Rule Tardies In seat when bell rings Off-task On-task during work time Not following Follow directions the directions first time Unruly transitions Transition quickly and quietly
Guidelines for Classroom Rules Consistent with school rules Understandable/ age appropriate Doable Manageable Always applicable Stated positively Kept to a minimum (<5)
Are these rules observable, measurable,positively stated, and convey expected behavior? Walk at all times in the classroom. Be a good citizen. Be on task during work times. Keep hands, feet, and objects to yourself. Be safe. Do your best. Follow directions the first time.
Partner Talk What are your current classroom rules? With your partner determine if the rules are: Observable Measurable Positivelystated Convey expected behavior Kept to a minimum (5 are usually sufficient) Identify a problem behavior and the aligned replacement rule
Action Plan Use the action plan template to write your rules and check the guidelines.
Share Out and Questions Examples of classroom rules How did you modify a classroom rule-what was the before and after? Tell us how and when you will teach.
Video Classroom Management in Action Planning and Organization Organize Physical Classroom
Classroom Layout Rationale How does information from the video and your current classroom layout support learning and student behavior? Furniture Materials Activities Student proximity Immediate reinforcement/redirection Engagement Safety See all students
Procedures Procedures explain the accepted process for carrying out a specific activity such as walking in the hallway, using lockers, sharpening pencils, attending an assembly, going to the bathroom.
Procedures and Routines Determine the desired outcome (ie. Homework turned in). Decide how students need to complete the task. Consider what errors students are likely to make. Consider problem areas or problem times- often a well designed routine can smooth things out.
Attention Signal Choose a location Choose a visual and auditory signal Teach the signal Give rewards and positive reinforcement when students respond Give mild consequence if students do not respond Fade out rewards and consequences over time
Secondary Example Turning in Assignments The last persons in each row pass their paper to the person in front of them. The next person does the same until the papers reach the first person in each row. First person in the row pass papers to the right. The first person in the last row places all papers in the basket on the teacher’s desk.
Step by Step Procedures Handouts: List of Procedures Step by Step Procedure
Guided Work Time Identify your Attention Signal on page 1 of Action Plan Independently review and highlight procedures needed in your class (on list of procedures). Write in any others needed at the bottom. Select 2-3 procedures that can be improved in your classroom and list them on your step by step procedures sheet in the left column. Discuss with your partner the steps involved in 1 of the procedures. Write down in student-friendly, concise wording what is expected for each step of this procedure. Continue working on the 2nd and 3rd procedure if there is time.
Communicating Expectations Rules Positively stated Measurable and Post achievable Teach 3-5 Practice Routines Transitions Feedback Movement Reinforce Procedures
Teaching Rules and Procedures Introduction State the rule or procedure Explain the rationale for the rule or procedure Instruction Describe examples and non-examples Demonstrate or act out the rule or procedure Ask for student feedback about the demonstration Was this an appropriate example of following the rule? Did the student exhibit all the steps in the procedure?
Teaching Rules and Procedures, cont. Teach Rules and Procedures Practice Elementary: Have each student role-play the rule or procedure (can be done in small group activities). Feedback Use formal and informal feedback Reinforce/Acknowledge compliance Schedule for teaching rules and procedures
Schedule for Teaching Rules and Procedures First Grading Period Teach rules and procedures for all areas of school during the first week Provide opportunities for review and practice Provide frequent reinforcement/acknowledgement After the first week, review rules two or three times per week Build in opportunities or activities for students to review and practice the rules
Schedule for Teaching Rules and Procedures Second Grading Period Review rules and procedures once per week Students Return from School Breaks (October, January, February, April) Review rules and procedures the first day that students return Remainder of the Year Review rules and procedures periodically as needed
Rule Reminders and Helpful Hints Signs and posters with pictures or icons associated with each rule Student-drawn pictures depicting the rules Digital pictures of students displaying rule following behavior
Procedure Helpful Hint Example Tape on floor to designate where students are to line up, where desks are to be placed, or where students are to sit.
Procedure Reminders and Helpful Hints, cont. Step by step pictures Timers to indicate allowed for transitions, playtime, work time, and other activities. Music playing during transitions. The music is a reminder not to talk, and the gradual decrease in volume is a signal that the transition is about over. Music playing quietly during independent work time (a signal that no talking is allowed). A special word or phrase that is only used to get student attention or signal a particular behavior.
Work Time Choose a template from the email attachment for a procedure poster. Create a the poster using your step by step procedures handout. Print to… Make a poster using the poster making machine.
Continuum of Positive and Negative ConsequencesUnderstanding Principles of Behavior “Behaviorists did not invent positive reinforcement. They systematized and named it. Positive reinforcement is a naturally occurring process that wise teachers understand and learn how to use to promote effective management of groups and individual students.” (Schuermann and Hall, 2008)
Consequences Behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences Teachers often reinforce the very behaviors that disrupt the class. Frequent teacher attention in the form of praise is more effective than rules or reprimands in increasing appropriate behavior.
Consequences, continued… Consequences are teacher-based actions that respond to appropriate (POSITIVE consequence) or inappropriate (NEGATIVE consequence) student behavior. Consequences work best when they: Are clear. Relate directly to rules and procedures. Possess a range of intensity or hierarchy of alternatives. Are natural and logical.
Positive Consequences Used to recognize and increase the frequency of appropriate behavior. Recognize on an intermittent (unpredictable, ever- changing) schedule that students are following rules and procedures. Can be used to develop self-managed behavior. Effective when they target a specific behavior and are applied immediately, with eye contact and genuine enthusiasm.
Positive Reinforcement for appropriate behavior Thumbs up Smile Verbal praise (Specific) Notes/phone calls home Note to the principal Student of the hour/day/week High five/elbow bump Computer time Special privileges
Levels of Positive Consequences Free and Strong and Intermittent Frequent Long term• Verbal praise • Phone calls • Field trip• Smile • Special privileges • Special projects• Stickers • Extra computer • Special• Rubber stamps time recognition to the• Thumbs up • Special seat principal• Home notes • Student of the • Student of the• High fives/elbows week month• Front of line pass • School gear • Awards assembly • Prom/dance ticket
Positive ConsequencesFree and Strong and IntermittentFrequent Long term
Negative Consequences Used to decrease problem behavior Functional Applied in an educative rather than vindictive fashion Presented in a hierarchy ranging from lesser to greater intensity Best applied in combination with positive consequences Important to ensure that they are logical and preserve a student’s dignity
When delivering consequences, keep in mind that you need to: Apply consistency Use the power of proximity Make direct eye contact Use a soft voice Be firm and anger-free Link the consequences to the expected behaviors Never accept excuses, bargaining, or whining Be educative, not vindictive
Avoiding the Negative Trap (Latham, 1998) Criticism Arguing Ridicule Questioning Sarcasm Despair and pleading Threats Physical force
Sample Hierarchies of Negative ConsequencesElementary School Middle School and High SchoolLevel 1: Class rule reminder Level 1: General reminderLevel 2: Individual rule reminder Level 2: Individual reminderLevel 3: Modifications (change seat) Level 3: Second individualLevel 4: Time away in another class reminder or “see me”Level 5: Parent contact Level 4: Time out I (goes to in-classLevel 6: After-school detention time-out area and completes think sheet)Level 7: Office referral Level 5: Time out II (goes to alternative room to complete think sheet) Level 6: Parent contact Level 7: Loss of privilege/detention Level 8: Referral
Effective Classroom ManagementUnless what you are about to say or do has a highprobability for making things better, don’t say it and don’t do it.
Effective Classroom Management Helpful hints and reminders: Stop, then redirect inappropriate behavior The single most commonly used but least effective method for stopping consequential behavior is to verbally scold and berate the student. How can you instead acknowledge the students who are doing the appropriate behavior?
4:1 4 positive acknowledgements for every 1 corrective feedback/reprimand
Behavior and Medical Crisis Plans In the event of a behavior or medical crisis, know: The process of what to do Who to call How/if to evacuate students Be knowledgeable At your school, create a written behavior and medical crisis plan Have it by the phone In your sub binder/folder
Thank you for your participation! Certificates for professional development hours completed Evaluation/feedback forms