Danielle Eadens, Ph.D. & Daniel Eadens, M.Ed., ABD
Accessedfromcomics.com
FCEC2010
Is it the academics or the behavior?
 All school faculty need to complete an assessment of the
curriculum and instruction...
 Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
 School-wide, Class-wide, Individualized
 CHAMPs
 Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (AB...
 What is it?
 Any systematic plan to encourage positive student
behavior and learning
 School-wide PBS (SWPBS)
 3-5 school-wide expectations, students are
reinforced by all faculty & staff for following
exp...
 Class-wide PBS (CWPBS)
 Teach classroom expectations
and reinforce students meeting
those expectations
 Have well-prep...
Principles:
1. Lack of structure yields irresponsible behavior
(classroom organization impacts student behavior)
2. Do not...
 Conversation (Can they talk? Noise level?)
 Help (How do they get it?)
 Activity (objective, end product)
 Movement (...
 Class/Individual
Combination Example:
Ooh! The secret student
just worked through that
problem by themselves
using the s...
 Complete functional analysis of behavior, review
student needs, strengths, motivators, etc.
 Examples: ABC, FBA/BIP, PT...
Is the behavior causing
physical harm to
other students?
 Example: Biting other students
to select challenging/inappropri...
Does the behavior appear to be triggering
additional problem behaviors or emotional
reactions in the student or others?
 ...
Examples: inner ear infections
side effects of medication
genetic conditions:
Prader-Willi syndrome
Fragile X syndrome
Behavior
Consequence
Antecedent
It works!
Do it again!
 Antecedent:
happens right before the
behavior (ex. instigator)
 ...
The “PTR” Strategy is an Assessment-based Model
of Positive Behavior Support for Individual
Students with Problem Behavior...
1. Behavior Hypotheses - Behavior’s
purpose
2. Prevention Strategies – make
settings, events, etc., less triggering
for ch...
1. Inform students of what is
expected by them. (CHAMPS)
2. Establish a positive
3. learning climate.
4. Provide meaningfu...
7. Build and exhibit self-confidence
(fake it ‘til you make it)
8. Recognize positive student attributes
(inside character...
3. Replacement Skills – Teach skills to
replace the problem behavior (T)
(behavior serves a function, find
another way to ...
 REMEMBER The Fair
Pair Rule: Behavior
reduction strategies
should always be used in
conjunction with
procedures that tea...
4. Responses – Plan what adults will do
when the problem behavior occurs (R)
(include reinforcement for replacement
and ap...
 The goal of CBM is to teach students to be
their own agents of change in control of
their own behavior and learning
 CBM Assumes that
individuals can and
want to monitor and
manage their own
behavior
 Shaping &
changing behavior
through...
 Self Management
 Self-monitoring
 e.g. Data monitoring
with vibrating timer
 Self-instruction
 e.g. Student: “Stay
f...
 Procedures that
when implemented
immediately after a
target behavior,
reduce the future
probability of the
behavior occu...
1. Proximity control – anticipate behavior & prevent
it by body positioning, staying calm & facilitating
communication
2. ...
1. Be Consistent – enforce & reinforce to
reduce confusion & increase respect
2. Avoid Reinforcing Inappropriate
Behavior ...
3. Deal with Inappropriate (non-ignorable)
Behavior Immediately – Teaches child behavior is
not acceptable with you
4. Con...
 Delivery of reinforcement after behavior has
not been exhibited
 We generally use differential reinforcement to
increas...
 Delivery of a reinforcement after a child has not
exhibited a target behavior during predetermined
period of time
Exampl...
 Fixed or whole interval---not reinforced if the
behavior occurs any time during the predetermined
time period
 Example:...
 Momentary---not reinforced if the behavior occurs at
the time of observation
 Ex.: At end of 5 min. interval, teacher l...
 Reset Interval---interval reset when behavior occurs
 Example: 10 min. interval. Interval starts at 4:00, set to
end at...
 Increased Interval or DRO-Fading – interval increases
over time in relation to progress
 Ex.: After three successful 10...
 Reinforcement of a more appropriate form of a
targeted inappropriate behavior
 Example: Raising hand vs. calling out (s...
 Reinforcement of behaviors that are topographically
incompatible with the targeted behavior
 Examples:
 If you are on-...
 Reinforcement of small decreases in the rate of
the target behavior (compared to baseline)
 Use with high rate of occur...
 Two Forms: Rate and Interval
 Rate: reinforcement provided if lower rate of occurrence
during specified interval
 Exam...
 AKA Changing Criterion Design
 Reinforcement of increases in the rate of a target
behavior compare to the baseline rate...
 Procedure for gradually reducing the frequency and/or
intensity of a target behavior by withholding
reinforcement from a...
 Extinction is ONLY
effective with behaviors
that are maintained by
attention
 Extinction IS NOT effective
with behavior...
 Once behavior is no longer reinforced, student will
temporarily intensify behavior to get reinforcer
 Don’t misjudge ex...
 Systematic Removal of reinforcers
contingent on inappropriate behavior
 Often (mis)used in conjunction with a token eco...
 Restitution or simple correction – return environment
to its previous condition
 Ex. Clean desk they wrote on
 Restitu...
 Recognize the need for PBS (A systematic plan to
encourage positive student behavior and
learning)
 Have a plan that: r...
 For a mild/moderate classroom:
 Use CHAMPs classroom management system to
ensure expectations are understood for every ...
 Dunlap, G, Lovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-Teach-
Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Posit...
Fcec2010 beh mgmt_dme_dwe
Fcec2010 beh mgmt_dme_dwe
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  • CMP: Classroom Management Plan
  • 80-20 – gen ed class
  • FBA: Functional Behavioral Assessment
    BIP: Behavior Intervention Plan
  • Fcec2010 beh mgmt_dme_dwe

    1. 1. Danielle Eadens, Ph.D. & Daniel Eadens, M.Ed., ABD Accessedfromcomics.com FCEC2010
    2. 2. Is it the academics or the behavior?  All school faculty need to complete an assessment of the curriculum and instruction along with a functional analysis of behavior to determine if curriculum changes or other modifications in the environment may eliminate the undesirable behavior in the school, class, or individual
    3. 3.  Positive Behavior Support (PBS)  School-wide, Class-wide, Individualized  CHAMPs  Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC)  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)  Cognitive Behavior Management (CBM)  General Behavior Reduction Strategies  Bringing it all together  Recommended Resources
    4. 4.  What is it?  Any systematic plan to encourage positive student behavior and learning
    5. 5.  School-wide PBS (SWPBS)  3-5 school-wide expectations, students are reinforced by all faculty & staff for following expectations  E.g. “kilts” at DHMS David Lassman / The Post-Standard
    6. 6.  Class-wide PBS (CWPBS)  Teach classroom expectations and reinforce students meeting those expectations  Have well-prepared, interesting, & effective lessons  Decide what you are reinforcing and do so while giving them the best possible learning environment   E.g. CMP like CHAMPs, token economy system, mission statement, marble jar, positive framing, community building, etc.
    7. 7. Principles: 1. Lack of structure yields irresponsible behavior (classroom organization impacts student behavior) 2. Do not assume students know what is right (overtly teach how to behave responsibly) 3. What you pay attention to is what will flourish (acknowledge the responsible behavior) 4. Do not REACT, RESPOND (preplan responses to misbehavior) Sprick, R. (2009). CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management (2nd Ed.) http://www.safeandcivilschools.com/
    8. 8.  Conversation (Can they talk? Noise level?)  Help (How do they get it?)  Activity (objective, end product)  Movement (Can they move? Bathroom?)  Participation (What does it look like?) PLANNING and TEACHING EXPECTATIONS will give you more time to teach (and make you go home happier in the afternoon!)
    9. 9.  Class/Individual Combination Example: Ooh! The secret student just worked through that problem by themselves using the steps on the board!
    10. 10.  Complete functional analysis of behavior, review student needs, strengths, motivators, etc.  Examples: ABC, FBA/BIP, PTR, Behavior contract, social skills instruction, point sheet (with reinforcement for criterion being met), etc.
    11. 11. Is the behavior causing physical harm to other students?  Example: Biting other students to select challenging/inappropriate behaviors to target for correction
    12. 12. Does the behavior appear to be triggering additional problem behaviors or emotional reactions in the student or others?  Example: Name calling of other students
    13. 13. Examples: inner ear infections side effects of medication genetic conditions: Prader-Willi syndrome Fragile X syndrome
    14. 14. Behavior Consequence Antecedent It works! Do it again!  Antecedent: happens right before the behavior (ex. instigator)  Behavior: problematic behavior (described objectively & measurably)  Consequence: (reinforcing) outcome of the behavior -NOTE: NOT a punishment, but what child gets as a result of the behavior e.g. Teacher gives student academic task e.g. Student publicly disrespects teacher e.g. Student gets out of academic task & gains reinforcing attention from peers
    15. 15. The “PTR” Strategy is an Assessment-based Model of Positive Behavior Support for Individual Students with Problem Behaviors P = Prevent T = Teach R = Reinforce Dunlap, G, Lovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support. ISBN: 1598570153 Accessed from comics.com
    16. 16. 1. Behavior Hypotheses - Behavior’s purpose 2. Prevention Strategies – make settings, events, etc., less triggering for child or group (P)
    17. 17. 1. Inform students of what is expected by them. (CHAMPS) 2. Establish a positive 3. learning climate. 4. Provide meaningful learning experiences. 5. Avoid threats. 6. Demonstrate fairness.
    18. 18. 7. Build and exhibit self-confidence (fake it ‘til you make it) 8. Recognize positive student attributes (inside characteristics) 9. Utilize positive modeling (practice what you preach) 10. Pay attention to the physical arrangement of the classroom. 11. Limit downtime.
    19. 19. 3. Replacement Skills – Teach skills to replace the problem behavior (T) (behavior serves a function, find another way to meet that function)
    20. 20.  REMEMBER The Fair Pair Rule: Behavior reduction strategies should always be used in conjunction with procedures that teach new behaviors  Don’t try to eliminate it without replacing it.
    21. 21. 4. Responses – Plan what adults will do when the problem behavior occurs (R) (include reinforcement for replacement and appropriate behavior)
    22. 22.  The goal of CBM is to teach students to be their own agents of change in control of their own behavior and learning
    23. 23.  CBM Assumes that individuals can and want to monitor and manage their own behavior  Shaping & changing behavior through the use of cognitive & behavioral principles  Goal is to get the student to monitor their own behavior and self-reinforce appropriately
    24. 24.  Self Management  Self-monitoring  e.g. Data monitoring with vibrating timer  Self-instruction  e.g. Student: “Stay focused. You are getting distracted. Finish your essay.”  Self-evaluation  e.g. Data monitoring with vibrating timer  Self-reinforcement  Learning self-delayed gratification  Student Choice (as appropriate based on individual/class needs)  Recommended video about motivation  Career analyst Dan Pink “Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think.” http://www.ted.com/tal ks/lang/eng/dan_pink_ on_motivation.html
    25. 25.  Procedures that when implemented immediately after a target behavior, reduce the future probability of the behavior occurring General Behavior Reduction Strategies
    26. 26. 1. Proximity control – anticipate behavior & prevent it by body positioning, staying calm & facilitating communication 2. Injecting humor – reduces tension, makes the brain leave ‘fight/flight’ 3. Instructional control – instruction on expected behaviors (examples & non-examples as appropriate) 4. Problem-solving facilitation – offer positive alternatives (Love & Logic: “Would you like to hear what other kids have tried in this situation?”) 5. Stimulus change – modify environmental stimuli
    27. 27. 1. Be Consistent – enforce & reinforce to reduce confusion & increase respect 2. Avoid Reinforcing Inappropriate Behavior – avoid long lectures & extra attention
    28. 28. 3. Deal with Inappropriate (non-ignorable) Behavior Immediately – Teaches child behavior is not acceptable with you 4. Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior – short & fair consequences -> implement immediately, do not carry over to next day if possible 5. Avoid Ineffective Procedures– don’t yell, shout, etc.
    29. 29.  Delivery of reinforcement after behavior has not been exhibited  We generally use differential reinforcement to increase the rate, duration, or intensity of behaviors that students already have in their repertoire, BUT do not perform at an acceptable rate What’s the magic word?1 2 3
    30. 30.  Delivery of a reinforcement after a child has not exhibited a target behavior during predetermined period of time Example: not texting while driving for 1 minute = 1 M & M
    31. 31.  Fixed or whole interval---not reinforced if the behavior occurs any time during the predetermined time period  Example: student does not suck his thumb during entire 10 min. interval -> get a sticker for chart
    32. 32.  Momentary---not reinforced if the behavior occurs at the time of observation  Ex.: At end of 5 min. interval, teacher looks at student to see if he is sucking thumb at that moment – not sucking thumb? then, he gets sticker
    33. 33.  Reset Interval---interval reset when behavior occurs  Example: 10 min. interval. Interval starts at 4:00, set to end at 4:10 (& student gets sticker then.) Student caught sucking thumb at 4:05. Interval restarts, student cannot be reinforced until 4:15 now – provided he doesn’t suck thumb for 10 min.
    34. 34.  Increased Interval or DRO-Fading – interval increases over time in relation to progress  Ex.: After three successful 10 min. interval, interval for reinforcement increases to 20… If not successful, interval stays at 10 min. – NOTE: okay to increase quality of reinforcer as intervals increase
    35. 35.  Reinforcement of a more appropriate form of a targeted inappropriate behavior  Example: Raising hand vs. calling out (student gets teacher’s attention either way)
    36. 36.  Reinforcement of behaviors that are topographically incompatible with the targeted behavior  Examples:  If you are on-task, you cannot be off-task  Hand at side to prevent poking other students in line Targeted Behavior Reinforced Behavior Reinforcement
    37. 37.  Reinforcement of small decreases in the rate of the target behavior (compared to baseline)  Use with high rate of occurrence problem behaviors or with appropriate behaviors that have become a problem due to a high rate of occurrence (ex. Repeatedly asking to use RR) Day 1 Day 2 = Reinforcement
    38. 38.  Two Forms: Rate and Interval  Rate: reinforcement provided if lower rate of occurrence during specified interval  Example: Student only asked 3 times in 1 hour to use RR, allowed to use RR at end of that 1 hr interval.  Interval: reinforcement provided if interval since last occurrence has passed  Example: It has been 1 hr since last asked to use RR, student gets to go  Effective DRL depends on solid baseline behavior data
    39. 39.  AKA Changing Criterion Design  Reinforcement of increases in the rate of a target behavior compare to the baseline rate  Used to increase behaviors student knows, just does not use enough (ex. Saying please)  Purpose is to INCREASE target behavior  Ex. Increasing frequency of saying please, student reinforced at all three stages: 25% 50% 100%
    40. 40.  Procedure for gradually reducing the frequency and/or intensity of a target behavior by withholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior  Ignore a behavior that would normally be reinforced. Ex. Tantrum where the function is attention
    41. 41.  Extinction is ONLY effective with behaviors that are maintained by attention  Extinction IS NOT effective with behaviors that are intrinsically reinforcing  Consistency is critical!
    42. 42.  Once behavior is no longer reinforced, student will temporarily intensify behavior to get reinforcer  Don’t misjudge extinction program as ineffective based on extinction bursts  Decide whether extinction burst phase is ignore-able before implementing extinction Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Intervention Day 5
    43. 43.  Systematic Removal of reinforcers contingent on inappropriate behavior  Often (mis)used in conjunction with a token economy system as reinforcement system & consequences should be separate  E.g. red/yellow/green, loss of computer time Accessedfromcomics.com
    44. 44.  Restitution or simple correction – return environment to its previous condition  Ex. Clean desk they wrote on  Restitutional Overcorrection – return environment into dramatically better condition  Ex. Throws a piece of paper on ground, must pick up all pieces of paper on ground in classroom  Positive Practice Overcorrection – practicing an appropriate behavior repeatedly as punishment for inappropriate behavior  Ex. Student does not fold paper per teacher directions, must fold 10 pieces of paper in correct format
    45. 45.  Recognize the need for PBS (A systematic plan to encourage positive student behavior and learning)  Have a plan that: reinforces good behavior & does NOT reinforce unwanted behaviors Accessed from comics.com
    46. 46.  For a mild/moderate classroom:  Use CHAMPs classroom management system to ensure expectations are understood for every lesson  Practice functional analysis (ABC) so it becomes automatic for every misbehavior witnessed  Use a combination of PTR/PBS across the school, class, & for individuals  E.g. Schoolwide: Prevent at lunchtime via assigned seating; Classwide: removing triggering stimuli; Individual: provide choices in place of directives  Use CBM to get individual students (or a small class) realize they can become agents of change in their own behavior  Implement general behavior reduction techniques as appropriate/needed
    47. 47.  Dunlap, G, Lovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-Teach- Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support. ISBN: 1-598-57015-3  FLDOE. (1999). Facilitator’s Guide to Positive Behavior Support. Access free from: http://www.apbs.org/files/PBSwhole.pdf  Lemov, D. (2010). Teach Like A Champion: 49 Techniques that put Students on the Path to College. ISBN: 978-0-470-55047-2  Mueller, T.G., & Brewer, R.D. (2010). Strategies at Hand: Quick and Handy Positive Behavior Support Strategies. ISBN: 978-1- 934-57564-2  Sprick, R. (2009). CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management (2nd Ed). ISBN: 978-1-59909-030-6  For recommendation to parents: Latham, G. I. (2006). The Power of Positive Parenting. ISBN: 1-56713-175-1

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