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Classroom Part 1: School Wide Positive Behavior Support All Settings MO SW-PBS SI 2008

Classroom Part 1: School Wide Positive Behavior Support All Settings Presented at MO SW-PBS SI 2008 By Brandi Schumacher

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Classroom Part 1: School Wide Positive Behavior Support All Settings MO SW-PBS SI 2008

  1. 1. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: All Settings Terry Bigby, Ed.D. Brandi Schumacher, M.S. Based on the work of Brandi Simonsen, UConn & George Sugai, UConn
  2. 2. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: All Settings <ul><li>What do I expect my students to do in all settings? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I get them to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if they don’t do it? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Academic Systems Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Intensive, Individual Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Students </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-based </li></ul><ul><li>High Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive, Individual Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Students </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-based </li></ul><ul><li>Intense, durable procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Some students (at-risk) </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid response </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Some students (at-risk) </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid response </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>All students </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive, proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>All settings, all students </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive, proactive </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>SCHOOLWIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Common purpose & approach to discipline </li></ul><ul><li>2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSROOM-WIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Active supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent precorrections for chronic errors </li></ul><ul><li>Effective academic instruction & curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>NONCLASSROOM SETTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Active supervision by all staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan, move, interact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precorrections & reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY/TERTIARY INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral competence at school & district levels </li></ul><ul><li>Function-based behavior support planning </li></ul><ul><li>Team- & data-based decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted social skills & self-management instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations </li></ul>SW PBS Practices
  5. 5. Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
  6. 6. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: All Settings <ul><li>Maximize Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Post, Teach , Review, Monitor, & Reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>Establish A Continuum of Strategies Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Establish A Continuum of Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate Behavior </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1) Maximize Structure <ul><li>A) Physical Arrangement of the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize crowding and distraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>B) Develop predictable routines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Routines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student Routines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C) Teach Student Routines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson Components </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Minimize crowding & distraction <ul><li>Design environment to elicit appropriate behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remind/Precorrect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positively Acknowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designate staff & student areas . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangements (group work, individual work) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Teacher Routines <ul><li>Greeting students </li></ul><ul><li>Attention signal </li></ul><ul><li>Giving directions </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning class work and homework </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Providing correction </li></ul><ul><li>Escorting students to bus, cafeteria, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting student work </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping records </li></ul>
  10. 10. Student Routines <ul><li>Entering the room </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning the school day </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpening pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Requesting assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Independent work </li></ul><ul><li>Passing in papers </li></ul><ul><li>Putting things away </li></ul><ul><li>Ending the school day </li></ul><ul><li>Making up missed work </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Routines” Lesson Components <ul><li>Definition of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Description of skill components </li></ul><ul><li>Model/demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Role play/behavioral rehearsal activities </li></ul>
  12. 12. I write in my journal. I go to the big group. I work at calendar time. I see the schedule for today.
  13. 13. 2) Establish /Post, Teach , Review, Monitor, & Reinforce Positively Stated Expectations <ul><li>Establish behavioral expectations/rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach rules in context of routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Review or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor students behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce using verbal and nonverbal responses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Clearly Define Expected Behaviors <ul><li>Set of “expectations” </li></ul><ul><li>State positively and succinctly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep to five or fewer </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>1. List problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify “replacement behaviors” {what do </li></ul><ul><li>you want them to do instead} </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identify “general” set of replacement </li></ul><ul><li>behaviors </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sample Expectations All Settings Safe <ul><li>Keep hands, feet & objects to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Walk </li></ul>Respectful <ul><li>Positive Language </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul>Responsible <ul><li>Follow Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Do your work </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activity: <ul><li>Identify common misbehaviors in your school. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what you want your students to do instead, in other words, identify “replacement behaviors.” </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a general set of behaviors for the class. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Teaching Behavior…. <ul><li>Teach, </li></ul><ul><li>practice, </li></ul><ul><li>and give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>all day, </li></ul><ul><li>every day, </li></ul><ul><li>all school year. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Procedures for Teaching Expected Behaviors <ul><li>Social skill instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teach the expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate the skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students practice the skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>review and test the skill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embed in curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, Practice, Practice </li></ul>
  19. 19. Review or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. Give Precorrects <ul><li>Precorrects function as reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt for expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Especially helpful before teacher anticipates behavior learning errors </li></ul>
  20. 20. Monitor activel y at all times <ul><ul><li>Move continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan continuously & overtly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact frequently & positively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively reinforce rule following behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Reinforce using verbal and nonverbal responses <ul><li>Positively interact with most students during the day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary type of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, verbal, visual contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by individual & group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix instructional & social interactions </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 3) Establish a Continuum of Reinforcement Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior <ul><li>Identify the “expectation” the student met and the specific behavior they displayed </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible to Intrinsic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External to Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent to Infrequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable to Variable </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 3 Types of Contingencies <ul><li>All for One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole group works for one reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One for All </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One student works for a classwide reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Each His Own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One student works for an individual reinforcer </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Behavior Contract <ul><li>Operationally define the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a clear description of the reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the outcomes if the student doesn’t meet the expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Special Bonuses? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Establish a Token Economy <ul><li>Determine and teach the Target Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Select the tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Identify back-up reinforcer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the number of tokens required to purchase the reinforcer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Define how & when Tokens are Exchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Define the decision rule to change/fade the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how the plan will be monitored (What data will you collect?) </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4) Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior(s). <ul><li>Error Corrections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planned Ignoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only of behaviors supported by adult interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal from reinforcing setting to one that is NOT reinforcing </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Manage minor (low intensity/frequency) problem behaviors positively & quickly <ul><ul><li>Signal occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State correct response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask student to restate/show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disengage quickly & early </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Follow procedures for chronic problem behaviors <ul><ul><li>Be consistent & business-like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precorrect for next occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow SW procedures for major behavioral incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop individualized plan for repeated incidents </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. In Summary <ul><li>Create a regular, predictable, positive learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach, review, monitor, and reinforce appropriate behaviors - View problem behaviors as learning errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the function of behavior and determine how to respond to inappropriate behavior. </li></ul>
  30. 30. References <ul><li>Colvin, G., & Lazar, M. (1997). The effective elementary classroom: Managing for success . Longmont, CO: Sopris West. </li></ul><ul><li>Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, W. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional strategy for managing predictable behavior problems. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, 143-150. </li></ul><ul><li>Darch, C. B., & Kameenui, E. J. (2003). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S. (2001). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Kameenui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. </li></ul><ul><li>Latham, G. I. (1997). Behind the schoolhouse door: Eight skills every teacher should have. Utah State University. </li></ul><ul><li>Latham, G. (1992). Interacting with at-risk children: The positive position. Principal, 72 (1), 26-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing disruptive behaviors in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and individualized social learning approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Paine, S. C., Radicchi, J., Rosellini, L. C., Deutchman, L., & Darch, C. B. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success . Champaign, IL: Research Press. </li></ul>

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