Gretchko Presentation Interfering Behaviors

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  • Interfering behaviors are those that interfere in some way with the individuals social, emotional, behavioral and or academic development and or that of his her peers
  • Most of us are used to viewing discipline as punishment but if we think about it as how to make kids more successful- it shifts our attention from punishment to teaching Youth more effective when rewarded 4 times more than punished (we should deliver positive consequences for doing work etc 4 times more than we deliver a negative consequence such as reprimanding)
  • The nuts and bolts of secondary and teritary internvention planning– don’t have time to in this presentation How do we know who gets what- data
  • More time on a test, academics too.
  • Let’s talk about classroom managed behaviors. Show the triangle
  • Behavior occurs in reaction to complex interacting variables. The key is to identify those relationships (enviromental, biological, instructional) There is not a special strategy that will work for every student
  • Stimulus or something Give examples of each What may be positively reinforcing for one student might be positively punishing for another (example: peer attention). Hand out FBA decision tree (page 40 in book) Hand out extended ABC assessment chart
  • If you have 1 student with a behavior problem or 5 students with a behavior problem, your first step should be to evaluate your classroom management plan—this progression has been shown to prevent an overidentification of children for special education (Gresham, 2002).
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior. Give attention for any other behaviors than talking out.
  • Depends on teacher being accurate (consistent with ratings) Hinges on fair and consistent use of consequences at home Convenient- Often used as one of the 1st interventions to try Great strategy for students with ADHD. Children benefit from the more frequent feedback than just at school Involves Parents (more informed).
  • (the type on which you twist the dial to a certain time interval and a bell sounds when it finishes the timing). They are never sure when the "ding" will occur, and must stay on task and behave well at all times for fear that they might be off task or misbehaving when the bell sounds. You want the sounding of the bell to be a surprise. 
  • Gretchko Presentation Interfering Behaviors

    1. 1. Positive Behavior Support: Interfering Behaviors Renee DiGiorgio Behavior Coach [email_address]
    2. 2. Goals of this Presentation <ul><li>Review PBS and Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>How do students move to Tier 2? </li></ul><ul><li>Start thinking about a School-Wide Process for handling interfering behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is Gretchko’s RTI model? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Strategies for Interfering behaviors </li></ul>
    3. 3. Build a Strong Tier One <ul><li>Clear Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of thumb- Students should be able to explain to a stranger what behaviors are expected of them in each setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Positive Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>School-Wide System for Discipline </li></ul>
    4. 4. PBS and Punishment <ul><li>Positive consequences promotes positive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment used by itself is not effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially students with academic difficulties or mental health issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term: Reinforcing for YOU (removing something negative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But . . . not teaching the student what you want them to do or re-teaching the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In other words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative consequences as main behavior management strategy is not likely to be effective especially for students who have long history of this type of management </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. PBS and Discipline <ul><li>Respond to student’s misbehavior as the student’s intention to be bad- and instead look at it as an error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You correct and re-teach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive approach to discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PREVENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding and teaching behavior we want instead of punishing behavior we don’t want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention through rules , routines , and arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We respond to all behavior (good and bad) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch kids being GOOD </li></ul></ul>How?? Are you thinking . . . . But what about that kid that is just bad. I have tried everything and they are still bad! I’m as positive as I can be! What now?! Don’t they need some punishment???
    6. 6. Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW <ul><li>Point #1: </li></ul><ul><li>3 levels of prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Point #3: </li></ul><ul><li>Just because student is at the top of the triangle does not </li></ul><ul><li>mean that universal prevention (green) is not effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Point #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 2 and 3 are systems to </li></ul><ul><li>put into place for those who need </li></ul><ul><li>additional support </li></ul>Without Strong Primary Prevention (Tier 1)
    7. 7. In other words . . . <ul><li>Even if you do Tier One with integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there are students who need more support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more individualized attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior Support Plans are created for students who need more support </li></ul>
    8. 8. PBS and Data <ul><li>Data is about student’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline Referrals/ Referral Slip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff members name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, Location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start collecting data to take to ICT (if Tier 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Data = Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using data increases school/ teacher accountability </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. School-Wide Discipline Example <ul><li>Roosevelt Elementary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Offense: Verbal Reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Offense: 5-minute Thinking Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd Offense: Buddy Teacher’s Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th Offense: On-Call Teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any aggressive behavior (intent to harm) is considered a MAJOR and office managed </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Problems with School-Wide Discipline <ul><li>Office Discipline Referrals are not the solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>represent a method for the school to document that more behavior support is needed for a student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segregation- Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FACT: Students with behavior problems tend to have academic problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missing instructional time puts the child farther behind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure makes academic task aversive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If misbehaving let’s student get out of something they don’t like or can’t do- then they will continue to misbehave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That’s why data collection is so important! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Gretchko Model: Example of a Way to Document Aggression <ul><li>Blue - Cool Fight. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kids were horsing around. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It could cause an accident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Yellow - Peer Conflict. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The kid (s) were angry; not as serious. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Red - Physically Aggressive/ Fight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious; someone is hurt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intent to harm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Gretchko’s PBS Model EXAMPLE <ul><li>Tier Three </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define Data (More than 6 Referrals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICT Support / Sp. Ed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tier Two </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define Data (3 to 6 Referrals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher begins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individualized strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If no progress- Bring to ICT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tier One- ALL students </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School-Wide Expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School-Wide Reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach, Re-teach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School-Wide Response to Interfering Behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Gretchko’s Response to Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>(RTI) Model </li></ul>BEHAVIOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>ALL STUDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>School- Wide Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Class-wide Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>PBS Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in Me (7-Habits) </li></ul><ul><li>Small Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education </li></ul><ul><li>(Deb & Natalie) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Support </li></ul>Collect Data Progress??
    14. 14. Gretchko’s School-Wide Model for Discouraging Interfering Behaviors <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Discussion ICT/ PBS meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>February 18 th 7:55 am (8:10) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Classroom Managed Behaviors </li></ul>WHY does this kid keep doing that!!!
    16. 16. What is the FUNCTION of the behavior? <ul><li>Behavior does not occur in a vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: identifying the variables that control behavior and using that knowledge to design individualized interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions need to be based on the function rather than the form of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Behavioral Assessment </li></ul>
    17. 17. Example <ul><li>Form: Inappropriate Vocal Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christine: shouts and throws her materials on the floor especially when asked to complete writing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arlene: engages in calling out behaviors when its someone else’s turn to talk or when the teacher is working with individual students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sara: diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder exhibits inappropriate verbalizations in a variety of settings, times of day and with various peers and staff members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior form is the same- Function is different </li></ul>Motivated by negative reinforcement (escape or avoidance of difficult tasks) Motivated by positive reinforcement (access to staff attention) Motivated by automatic reinforcement (sensory consequences)
    18. 18. Functions of Behavior: Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social: teachers/ peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity: access preferred activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible: access to preferred stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social: avoid teacher/ peer attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings: avoid or removed from aversive place/ situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks/Assignments: escape or avoid aversive or difficult task </li></ul></ul>Reinforcement= Behavior Positive= Something good is added Reinforcement= Behavior Negative= Something bad is taken away
    19. 19. ABC (Antecedent- Behavior- Consequence) 3/31 9:56 am Math lesson- small group I offered to assist George with instructional support George refused, stood up, and shouted at me Redirected George back to his desk to finish his work George swore at me and shouted Date/Time Setting Antecedent Behavior Consequence Effect When did the interfering behavior occur? Where did the interfering behavior occur? What happened immediately prior (i.e. triggered) to the interfering behavior Describe the interfering behavior. What did you do or what happened after the interfering behavior occurred? What effect did the consequence have on the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the interfering behavior?
    20. 20. I need help determining the reason (function) for the interfering behaviors <ul><li>Function Tree (see handout) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational Assessment Scale (see handout) </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Examples of Classroom Strategies </li></ul>
    22. 22. Classroom Management <ul><li>This is your first line of defense for behavior problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a PBS or RTI philosophy for academic work, your classroom management plan is the critical piece in preventing behavior problems and helping the majority of students (80-90%) stay focused and display good behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to regularly self-evaluate your plan to ensure that all of the components are in place. </li></ul>
    23. 23. What if I think the function of the behavior is positive reinforcement for attention?? <ul><li>IGNORE (extinction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to reduce the occurrence of a specific behavior (talking) do not give it any attention—ignore the behavior, every occurrence of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with reinforcement, this can be a powerful tool in reducing unwanted behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful . . . There will most likely be an extinction burst! </li></ul>
    24. 24. Behavior Journal Great strategy for those “impulsive behaviors” Great to re-teach expectations. Involve Parents Not appropriate for students who would rather complete the journal than do an aversive academic task (negative reinforcement- escape) + -
    25. 25. What if I think the function is to Escape or Avoid Tasks?? <ul><li>Is it a “can’t do” problem or a “won’t do problem”?? </li></ul><ul><li>Task Difficulty Antecedent Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give student work he/she can complete with 90% accuracy (easy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe behaviors during this time </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Strategies to increase compliance <ul><li>Pre-correction: state expectation and give reminder before student can “mess up” </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Momentum (High P  Low P) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If any compliance- Reinforce/PRAISE!!!!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember to Give an Effective Request: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not use a question format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get up close </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a quiet voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look them in the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them time (5-10 seconds- don’t interrupt the compliance-time window!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask only twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t give multiple requests (remember short-term memory) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Summary : clear, consistent method for translating the teacher’s report into consequences at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically sent home on a daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target behaviors are rated by teacher (4 to 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can rate social conduct and/or academic performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staying in the assigned seat, calling out, following teacher direction, completing work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students monitored throughout the day (broken up by class periods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based </li></ul>Positive Behavior Report Cards
    28. 28. 5 5 5 6 4 2 13 At lunch recess, Kevin had difficulties listening to the para when asked to stop playing so rough with a classmate. He needed to be asked 3 times. Afternoon and Morning was great! He earned his rewards. Great day Kevin!
    29. 30. Behavior Report Card Gives you DATA!
    30. 31. Positive Peer Pressure: The Good Behavior Game <ul><li>Summary: Rewards children for displaying appropriate on-task behaviors during instruction time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class divided into 2 or more teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point is given to a team for any inappropriate behavior displayed by one of its members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team with the fewest number of points at the game's conclusion wins a group reward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence-Based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first tested in 1969; confirmed it is an effective means of increasing the rate of on-task behaviors while reducing disruptions in the classroom (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Harris & Sherman, 1973; Medland & Stachnik, 1972). </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Positive Peer Pressure: The Behavior Bell <ul><li>Summary: Use a kitchen timer & tell the students that you will be evaluating their behavior at the very moment that the bell sounds.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the timer for any time between one minute and twenty minutes. (Do not let the students see the timer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon hearing the bell, assess the behavior at that moment.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can give each student, teams or give the whole group zero to 3 points depending on the percentage of students who were on-task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A predetermined privilege is earned when the group attains a certain preset number of points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: (Charles, 2002; McIntyre, 2009) </li></ul>
    32. 33. The Tower <ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student earns one block (an ‘X’ on a square drawn with a dry-erase marker) for positive behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A predetermined number of blocks are needed in order to be traded in for a predetermined reward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever student engages in a problem behavior one block is erased from her tower. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: based on response cost system of behavior management (Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1998) </li></ul>
    33. 35. Intervention Ideas for Tier One (classroom) <ul><li>Master Folder </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make copies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inattentive/ Off-Task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defiance/ Non-Compliant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally Unpredictable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Attention </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Thank-you! <ul><li>Questions/ Comments? </li></ul>

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