Breeding And Culture Of Seabass And Siganids


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  • Fish survival in a good state of health during transport is influenced by a number of factors, or combination of factors. Fish with full digestive tracts need more oxygen, more susceptible to stress, produce excrements which take up much of the oxygen of the water.
  • Stress is caused by: deteriorating water quality (low dissolved oxygen, high water temperature, improper pH, accumulation of ammonia or nitrite, crowding, improper handling during packing); Capacity of fish to take up and utilize oxygen depends on their stress tolerance, water temperature,pH, carbon dioxide concentration, and amount of metabolic products (e.g. ammonia) present in the water
  • The figure is for transporting tropical fish
  • Treatment of carrying water with various chemicals is sometimes done to increase carrying capacity, as well as to prevent health deterioration and stress effects; however, test packing and shipment should always be made
  • MS 222 is a light anaesthetic; fish generally recover even after long exposure to it; however, it is too expensive for everyday use. Quinaldine is a toxic solution and must be applied with care; it is worth using only for mass transport in big tanks; effective concentration 10-30mg/l according to species
  • Breeding And Culture Of Seabass And Siganids

    1. 1. Breeding and Culture of Sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and Siganids (Siganus gutattus) Albert G. Gaitan Head, Igang Marine Station
    2. 2. Getting to know marine fishes in aquaculture Milkfish Chanos chanos Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer Orange-spotted rabbitfish Siganus guttatus Mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus Orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides Brown-mottled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochi
    3. 3. Getting to know marine fishes in aquaculture Tigertail seahorse Hippocampus comes Barbour’s seahorse Hippocampus barbouri Humphead grouper Cromileptes altivelis Cobia Rachycentron canadum Grey mullet Mugil cephalus Humphead Maori wrasse Cheilinus undulatus Bluefin tuna Thunnus sp.
    4. 4. <ul><li>After the lecture, trainees should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize on sight milkfish, Asian sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, mangrove snapper, and orange-spotted rabbitfish, and distinguish them from similar species </li></ul><ul><li>Understand these species well enough to provide suitable conditions for grow-out </li></ul><ul><li>Know the relevant differences and similarities among farmed species </li></ul>
    5. 5. Basic fish biology Species taxonomy, genetics Morphology, diagnostic characters Geographic distribution Life history Reproduction Tolerance to environmental factors Diseases Growth and survival Farming systems and methods Fisheries
    6. 6. Taxonomy Family Species Chanidae Chanos chanos (monotypic) Centropomidae Lates calcarifer (8 other Lates ) Serranidae Epinephelus coioides (+ 78 other Epinephelus , Cromileptes, Plectropomus, Cephalopholis , Variola , etc. Lutjanidae Lutjanus argentimaculatus ( + 65 other Lutjanus + other genera) Siganidae Siganus guttatus (+ 26 other Siganus )
    7. 7. Scientific name: Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) English name: Asian Seabass, Giant Perch, Barramundi Local name: Apahap, Bulgan, Burgan, Salungsungan, Solong-solong
    8. 8. Lates calcarifer <ul><li>The species name, calcarifer is derived from the Latin words calcari meaning limestone spur and fera meaning a wild beast. This refers to the razor sharp edges of the gill covers </li></ul><ul><li>The common name Barramundi is an Aboriginal word meaning large-scaled silver fish </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Sea bass </li></ul><ul><li>Lates calcarifer </li></ul><ul><li>Iloilo, May 2007 </li></ul>
    10. 11. Geographical Distribution of Lates calcarifer Indo-west Pacific from Arabian Gulf through Asia to Taiwan Province of China, the Indonesian archipelago, Papua New Guinea and northern Australia
    11. 12. Seabass Biology <ul><li>Mature initially as males after 3-4 years but invert to females on the sixth year; but not all males become females (protandrous hermaphrodite) </li></ul><ul><li>Breed during the monsoon months (late June until late October); eggs are spawned and fertilized at sea; larvae enter brackishwater swamps and mangroves; also inhabit estuaries, rivers and lakes; but return to sea to spawn. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Cont. Seabass Biology <ul><li>Opportunistic predators; young ones (< 4cm in size) feed on microcrustacea; bigger ones (30cm) feed on macrocrustacea and fish; really big ones prey mostly on fishes </li></ul><ul><li>Body elongated and compressed; body silvery white, dark spots on both sides of body forming longitudinal lines; </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: muddy and sandy bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Euryhaline (able to tolerate a wide range of salinities: sea, brackish or freshwater) </li></ul>
    13. 14. Why culture seabass? <ul><li>High market potential </li></ul><ul><li>Fast growth </li></ul><ul><li>Euryhaline </li></ul><ul><li>Seed supply- fry can be easily raised in </li></ul><ul><li>the hatchery </li></ul>
    14. 15. Sea bass broodstock
    15. 17. seabass pond/ cage/ cement tank pond/ pen/ cage culture grading in cages at 3-4 weeks interval during net change Larval stage (30 days) seabass seabass nursery stage (1-2 months) grow-out (5-12 months) hatchery- produced fry wild-caught fry wild-caught fingerlings grading grading grading grading grading Seabass culture phase
    16. 18. Site Selection <ul><li>Floating Net Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from adverse weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible but secured from poachers </li></ul><ul><li>At least 3m deep and away from seagrass and coral beds </li></ul><ul><li>Earthen Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate water source with minimal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Clay or sandy-clay soil </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from adverse weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible but secured from poachers </li></ul><ul><li>(abandoned shrimp ponds) </li></ul>
    17. 19. Nursery phase <ul><li>Cage/Pond </li></ul><ul><li>For grouper/seabass/snapper </li></ul><ul><li>stocking of 1-2 inch size fingerlings </li></ul><ul><li>stocking density of 250-500 pcs/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>feed crumbles </li></ul><ul><li>size-grading </li></ul><ul><li>change nets </li></ul><ul><li>monitor growth and survival </li></ul><ul><li>harvest </li></ul>
    18. 20. Nursery of high value species in cages
    19. 21. Sea bass nursery in pond
    20. 22. Grow out cages for high value species
    21. 23. Floating net cages <ul><li>Squares or rectangles of 4x4 to 10x10m </li></ul><ul><li>Frames made of bamboo, lumber, GI or PVC pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Floats made of styrofoam, empty plastic containers </li></ul><ul><li>Mooring made of cement blocks, wood or GI pegs, or anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Can be arranged in quadrant cluster </li></ul>
    22. 24. Pond preparation <ul><li>Drain and dry pond for at least 2 weeks; allow pond bottom to crack </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate predators, competitors with 40kg/ha derris root, or 80-120 kg/ha tea seed cake, or by adding quicklime to raise pH to 12 and ammonium sulfate to release ammonia at 50 and 10gm/m 2 of 5cm water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Apply lime at 1-2 tons/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Till or plow upper 5-10cm of pond soil </li></ul><ul><li>Check gates and screens </li></ul><ul><li>Level/slope pond bottom and provide harvesting pit or canal </li></ul>
    23. 25. Seed supply <ul><li>Hatchery-reared or wild caught </li></ul><ul><li>Size of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation in freshwater bath for 10-15min </li></ul><ul><li>Pack not more than 100g/l of water at 20-22 deg.C </li></ul><ul><li>Acclimatize before release </li></ul>
    24. 26. Grow-out(Floating net cages) <ul><li>Prepare 25, 35mm net cages </li></ul><ul><li>Initially stock 15-20 ind/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Feed vit mix fortified trash fish at 10%ABW or </li></ul><ul><li>Feed pellets at 3-8%ABW </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust feeding as the fish grows </li></ul><ul><li>Regular size grading </li></ul><ul><li>Remove floating debris </li></ul><ul><li>Regular diving </li></ul><ul><li>Regular cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Stock with 20-30 siganid to control fouling </li></ul><ul><li>Change clogged nets </li></ul><ul><li>Selective harvesting from 4 months onwards </li></ul>
    25. 27. Grow-out (Ponds) <ul><li>Stock 5-10 thousand seabass fingerlings/ha in net cages </li></ul><ul><li>Feed with chopped fish 5-10% ABW </li></ul><ul><li>Pellets alone at 3-6% ABW(crude protein-43%) </li></ul><ul><li>Release fish weaned to feeding </li></ul>
    26. 28. Harvesting (Floating net cages) <ul><li>Do not feed 1 day before harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect nets before lifting </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly lift net and concentrate the fish in one corner </li></ul><ul><li>Use soft, knotless scoop nets </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid loss of scales during harvest </li></ul>
    27. 29. Harvesting (Ponds) <ul><li>Use fine, soft knotless, seine/scoop nets </li></ul><ul><li>Select “good size” and stock in cage net </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed the fish at least a day before harvesting/packing </li></ul>
    28. 30. Sea bass harvest in pond
    29. 31. Packing and Transport <ul><li>Do not feed the fish 1 day before packing </li></ul><ul><li>Place the fish in a tank for conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly lower temp. to 22 deg.C by adding ice </li></ul><ul><li>Pack 3-5 fish/bag with enough packing water to cover the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Place packed fish in styrofoam box </li></ul>
    30. 32. Packing and transport of live marketable fish <ul><li>Fish can be transported live in plastic bags. </li></ul><ul><li>Stock harvested fish in aerated conditioning tank. </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly lower temperature to 20 degrees centigrade (2-3 degrees/hour) by adding crushed ice in plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>Put 3-5 fish into a 20x20x30cm double lined plastic bags. Limit the biomass to 2-3kg fish/bag </li></ul><ul><li>For transport by air not exceeding 8 hours after packing: Plastic bags should have enough packing water (20 degrees C) to cover the eyes; Add medical oxygen at 1:3 water to air ratio; Seal bags with rubber band; Pack bags in styrofoam boxes; Add adequate amount of frozen gel packs or ice bags or frozen water in sealed plastic bottles wrapped in old newspapers to keep the temp. low during transport. </li></ul>
    31. 33. <ul><li>Close system of fish transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sealed container where all the requirements for survival are self-contained </li></ul></ul>Two basic fish transport systems: <ul><li>Open system of fish transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of water-filled containers where the requirements for survival are supplied continuously from outside sources </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Close system of fish transport <ul><li>Sealed plastic bag partly filled with water and oxygen </li></ul>
    33. 35. Main factors influencing survival of fish in transport: <ul><li>Quality of fish ( a decisive criterion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish to be transported must be healthy and in good condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish to be transported should be adapted to a lower water temperature; during the cooling process, the temperature drop should not be faster than 5 degrees C per hour; direct contact of fish with ice should be prevented at the same time; the total temperature difference should not be greater than 12-15 degrees C, with respect to the species and age of the fish (FRG recommendation, 1979) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish to be transported, except for larval stages should be left to starve for at least a day; </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. 2. Oxygen <ul><ul><li>Maintenance of dissolved oxygen at a proper level is one of the most important factors during fish transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen consumption increases during handling and fish transport . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen levels of water for most warm water fish should be >5mg/l (ppm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for dissolved oxygen varies for size and species: large fish consumes less oxygen per unit weight than does a small one </li></ul></ul>
    35. 37. 3. pH, carbon dioxide and ammonia <ul><ul><li>The water pH level is a control factor because the proportions of toxic ammonia and CO2 contents are direct functions of pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing transport time also increases CO2 production (acidic); rapid changes in pH stress fish; buffers such as trishydroxylmethylaminomethane (1.3-2.6g/li)can be used to stabilize the water pH during fish transport (Piper et al.,1982) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water pH levels about 7-8 are optimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As pH and water temperature increases, the amount of toxic un-ionized ammonia also increases </li></ul></ul>
    36. 38. 4. Temperature <ul><ul><li>When water temperature is low, the pH remains higher and fish metabolism decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature and time of last feeding are important factors regulating ammonia excretion; lowering the water temperature decreases metabolic rate of the fish, lessening fish activity, thus reduces the production of ammonia; fish larger than 10cm should be starved at least 48h; those 20cm and larger should be starved 72h (Piper et al., 1982) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 39. Chemical methods for water and fish treatment during transport
    38. 40. 1. Use of fish tranquilizers <ul><li>Anaesthetics are used to quiet the fish during shipment, thus chance of injury is less and CO2 and toxic ammonia production reduced </li></ul><ul><li>The use of anaesthetics is recommended only if temperature of water transport is >15 degrees Centigrade </li></ul><ul><li>Anaesthetics should not be used to transport marketable size fish or young fish if the distance of transport is short </li></ul><ul><li>MS 222 and quinaldine are the two most used during fish transport </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of fish transported per unit volume can be increased by 50% if an anaesthetic is used. </li></ul>
    39. 41. 2 . Bacteriostatic chemicals <ul><li>Bactericides can be used to prevent accumulation of bacteria in water during fish transport </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrofurazone or furacine (10mg/l); acriflavin(1-2mg/l); oxytetracycline(20mg/l) and neomycin sulphate(20mg/l) are commonly used </li></ul>
    40. 42. Sea bass grow out cage (5x5 m)
    41. 43. Grower feeds for Sea bass
    42. 44. Sea bass harvest
    43. 45. Back to Main Page Back to Main Page Back to Main Page
    44. 46. Siganus guttatus Siganus lineatus
    45. 47. Description and ecology <ul><li>Rabbitfishes grow to about 40 cm (15 in) [2] and have small, rabbit -like mouths, large dark eyes, and a shy temperament which gives them their name; the scientific name Siganus is simply the Latin term by which Mediterranean rabbitfishes were known in Ancient Rome [2] . Most species have either bright colors or a complex and interesting pattern. </li></ul>
    46. 48. Cont. of Description and Ecology <ul><li>Another unusual feature among rabbitfishes is their pelvic fins , which are formed from two spines, with 3 soft rays between them. The dorsal fin bears 13 spines with 10 soft rays behind, while the anal fin has 7 spines and 9 oft rays behind; the fin spines are equipped with well-developed venom glands [3] . All rabbitfish are diurnal , some live in school, while others live more solitary lives among the corals . They are herbivorous , feeding on benthic algae in the wild. They are pelagic spawners. Many are fished for food, and the more colorful species – especially the foxfish – are often kept in aquaria . [2] </li></ul>
    47. 49. Salinity tolerance: where farms are possible Milkfish freshwater to seawater Rabbitfishes brackishwater to seawater Asian sea bass freshwater to seawater Groupers brackishwater to seawater Snappers freshwater to seawater Proper acclimation is required before salinity transfer
    48. 50. Feeding habit Main food Milkfish herbivore-omnivore detritus, algae Rabbitfishes herbivore seaweeds Asian sea bass carnivore fish, crustaceans Groupers carnivore fish, crustaceans Snappers carnivore fish, crustaceans Juveniles of farmed species can be weaned to formulated diets.
    49. 51. Sexuality Sexual maturity Milkfish separate sexes 5 yr, 70 cm Orange-spotted rabbitfish separate sexes 1 yr, 20 cm Asian sea bass male first, 3 yr, 50 cm female when older 5 yr, >60 cm Mangrove snapper separate sexes 3 yr, 50 cm Orange-spotted grouper female first, 2 yr, 50 cm male when older 4 yr, >60 cm
    50. 54. Siganus guttatus
    51. 59. Smaller fish are males, larger fish tend to be females.
    52. 60. Day 0 1.6 mm TL Day 7 3.44 mm TL Lates larvae do NOT have long fin spines
    53. 62. Nursery of high value species in cages <ul><li>Squares or rectangles of 4x4 to 10x10m </li></ul><ul><li>Frames made of bamboo, lumber, GI or HDPE pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Floats made of styrofoam, empty plastic containers </li></ul><ul><li>Mooring made of cement blocks, GI pegs or anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Can be arranged in quadrant clusters </li></ul>
    54. 63. Nursery phase <ul><li>Cage/Pond </li></ul><ul><li>For grouper/seabass/snapper </li></ul><ul><li>stocking of 1-2 inch size fingerlings </li></ul><ul><li>stocking density of 40 pcs/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>feed crumbles </li></ul><ul><li>size-grading </li></ul><ul><li>change nets </li></ul><ul><li>monitor growth and survival </li></ul><ul><li>harvest </li></ul>
    55. 64. Siganus javus Siganus canaliculatus Siganus vermiculatus Siganus fuscescens
    56. 65. Number of Siganus species across the Indo-Pacific and in the Red Sea and Mediterranean
    57. 67. sweeper sagyap
    58. 68. Multi-species hatchery
    59. 70. Backyard marine finfish hatchery
    60. 71. Artemia hatching tanks Brachionus culture tanks
    61. 72. Harvest of sea bass fry
    62. 73. Feeding of Siganids in floating net cage
    63. 75. Body weight sampling of siganids
    64. 76. Siganid ( siganus guttatus)