China: Imperialism to the 21 st Century
Imperialism in China Since the mid 17 th century, Chinese rulers had refused to adopt western ways
As a result, Chinese technology began to fall behind that of the Europeans who will begin to challenge the middle kingdom
The Opium War British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 18 th century China tried to halt imports of the highly addictive drug In 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought with the Chinese in a conflict called the opium war
Britain's superior military and industrial strength led to a quick victory
Treaty of Nanjing In 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to pay for Britain's war costs, open ports to British trade, and give Britain the island of Hong Kong
The western powers carved out spheres of influence , areas in which an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges including the right to build roads, railroads, and factories
Spheres of Influence
Chinese Reaction to Imperialism The Taiping Rebellion – from 1850-1864, angry impoverished peasants revolted against Qing officials. Millions were killed and China suffered.
Boxer Rebellion – in 1900, a group known as the Boxers assaulted foreign communities across China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give foreign powers even more influence in China.
The Chinese Revolution In the early 1900’s Chinese nationalism grew
Sun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new government and replace the Qing Dynasty
Sun Yat-sen’s Three Goals To end foreign domination To form a representative government To create economic security
In 1911, workers, peasants, and warlords toppled the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the Chinese Republic
Rival Groups Fight for Power After WWI, China was in disorder and Sun Yat-sen stepped down leaving rival groups fighting for power May Fourth Movement – Student movement that supported westernization, modernization, and democratic principles Communists – The Chinese Communist party is formed, influenced by the ideas of Marx and Lenin
Nationalists – Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) takes over control of the Nationalists party
Civil War At first, the Nationalists and Communists had worked together to unite China. Over time however, they would become enemies and a civil war will develop that will last for 22 years
Nationalists vs. Communists
The Long March Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the communists in the 1930’s
Mao led his followers, roughly 100,000, away from nationalists forces in 1934 in what in known as the Long March. Only about 20,000 people survived and settled in northern China where they would regroup and organize
Mao on the Long March
Mao Zedong Chiang Kai-Shek
WWII During World War II, Civil War would cease in order to fight Japanese forces. Both the Communists (who receive military aid from the United States) and the Nationalists fight against the Japanese invasion
After WWII the Civil War continued
Communist Victory In 1949 the Communists are victorious and the Nationalists flee to Taiwan Reasons for Mao’s Success Mao won the support of the huge peasant population by promising to give land to peasants Mao won the support of women by rejecting the traditional beliefs of Confucius Many people opposed the Nationalist government because of rumored corruption
Some Chinese felt that Nationalists had allowed foreigners to dominate China
Changing Role of Women Women gained more rights and won equality under the law. They were now expected to work alongside men in the factories and fields, however they were usually paid lower wages.
A few women also had government jobs
The Great Leap Forward In 1958, Mao an industrialization and modernization program known as the Great Leap Forward He called on people to increase industrial and agricultural output To make agriculture more productive, he created communes, groups of people who live and work together on common property. Communes had production quotas. Steel communes were also developed
The Great Leap Forward was a complete failure. Communes turned out poorly made goods and agricultural output declined. Bad weather added to the downturn, creating widespread famine.
Great Leap Forward Posters
The Cultural Revolution In 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to renew peoples loyalty to communism and establish a more equitable society. Mao feared intellectuals may try to overthrow the communist system of government Schools and Universities were shut down throughout China and students were encouraged to join the revolution Students formed groups of fighters called the Red Guards. They attacked professors, government officials, and factory managers.
The economy suffered, China loses contact with the outside world, and civil war once again threatened the country
United States Recognition During the Cold War, the US refused to recognize China With the Korean War, China and the United States favored opposing sides
By the 1970’s the situation began to change. China won admission to the United Nations in 1971, Richard Nixon visited Mao in 1972, and the US officially recognized the People’s Republic of China in 1979
Mao and Nixon in Beijing,1972
Communism Under Deng Xiaoping Mao died in 1976 and Deng Xiaoping took power.
Deng brought more economic freedom but little political change
Deng’s Four Modernizations Deng promoted foreign trade and more contact with foreign nations. He also introduced the Four Modernizations: Farming – modernize and mechanize Industry – upgrade and expand Science and Technology – encouraged development
Defense – improve military forces
Limited Privatization Deng got rid of Mao’s unpopular communes He allowed land to be leased to individual farmers After delivering a certain amount of food to the government, farmers could sell produce for a profit
Private businesses were also allowed to produce goods and services
Results of Reforms Foreign investment increased as well as the influx of foreign technology The economy grew and many enjoyed a better standard of living Foreign relations and trade improved Gap between rich and poor grew People begin to demand political reforms
Chinese economy show hints of Capitalism
Tiananmen Square The Chinese Government was willing to grant economic reforms but unwilling to make any political reforms. In May 1989, demonstrators in Beijing occupied Tiananmen Square, demanding more rights and freedoms When they refused to disperse as ordered, the government sent in troops and tanks.
Thousands were killed or wounded.
Return of Hong Kong In 1842, Britain gained the island of Hong Kong. During it’s years under British rule, Hong Kong became modernized and wealthy. In the 1980’s, Britain and China decided that Hong Kong would be returned to China in 1997. China agreed not to interfere with the social or economic policies of Hong King for 50 years and allow the island a degree of self rule.
Hong Kong was turned over on July 1, 1997
Prince Charles and Jiang Zemin at the return of Hong Kong Ceremony
Human Rights Violations Civil liberties are limited, including freedom of expression Prisoners and criminals are tortured Death penalty rates are extremely high
Women still do not have full equal rights
China in Today's World Chinese economy is one of the fastest growing in the world. The United States relies heavily on China’s exports. Largest population, 1.3 billion
Will host the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, a controversial setting given China’s record of human rights violations