Game Design - Lecture 3

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Lecture 3 of 4 in the Game Design Class, Fall 2012 - Formal elements of games

Lecture 3 of 4 in the Game Design Class, Fall 2012 - Formal elements of games

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  • 1. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES LD3. FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESAndrea ResminiGame DesignHT12 / HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS, NOV 9 2012 ANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 2. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESTODAYS CLASS A brief recap from L2 Formal elements Break WorkshopANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 3. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESRECAP: GAME SPACEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Carcassonne, board game
  • 4. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESRECAP: GAME SPACE every game takes place in some kind of space that defines the various areas of a game and the way they are relatedANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 5. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESFORMAL ELEMENTS players objectives procedures rules resources conflict boundaries outcomeANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 6. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#1. PLAYERS how many players? In what roles? Do they cooperate or compete? How?ANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 7. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESNUMBER OF PLAYERS a game for 1 player is different from a game for 2, 4 or 1.000.000 playersANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 8. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCERTAINTY OF NUMBERS a game for an exact number of players is different from a game for an unknown or variable number of playersANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 9. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESNUMBERSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 10. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESROLES OF PLAYERS single-role games are different from multi-role gamesANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 11. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESSINGLE ROLEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 12. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESMULTI-ROLEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 13. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESMULTI-ROLEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 14. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESSTYLES OF PLAY roles can also be played differently according to styles of play. For example:ANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 15. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESACHIEVERSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Increasing character statistics in Oblivion
  • 16. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESEXPLORERSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS The Far Lands in Minecraft, http://scarilianvids.blogspot.se
  • 17. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESPLAYER INTERACTION PATTERNS players can interact with the game and with one another in accordance to a number of different patternsANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 18. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESBASE BEHAVIORS these patterns are shaped via base behaviors such as direct conflict, negotiation, trading, or information sharingANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 19. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESSINGLE PLAYER VS GAMEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 20. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESMULTIPLE PLAYERS VS GAMEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Game of Bingo, http://blog.enclaveatwoodbridgecamapts.com/
  • 21. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESPLAYER VS PLAYERANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 22. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESUNILATERAL COMPETITIONANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Letters from Whitechapel, boccobsblog.wordpress.com
  • 23. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESMULTILATERAL COMPETITIONANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 24. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCOOPERATIVE PLAYANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 25. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESTEAM COMPETITIONANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 26. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#2. OBJECTIVES different games might have very different objectivesANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 27. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCAPTUREANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 28. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 ––FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES LD 3 FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCHASE / RACEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 29. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESALIGNANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Tetris reloaded, divineerror.deviantart.com
  • 30. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFBUILD / CREATEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Tetris reloaded, divineerror.deviantart.com
  • 31. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFSOLVE / OUTWITANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 32. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFEXPLOREANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 33. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFFORBIDDEN ACTANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 34. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFRESCUE / ESCAPEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 35. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#3. PROCEDURES different games might have very different objectivesANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 36. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESPROCEDURES IN VIDEOGAMES game- or system-controlled procedures in videogames allow for much complexity to be hidden from playersANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 37. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#4. RULES games also enforce rules on what players might do at any given momentANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 38. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESROLE OF RULES games rules can define limits, objects, concepts in the game, or restrict or delimit the field of actionsANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 39. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESIF YOU PLAY CHESS you cannot move your king in a position that results in a checkANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 40. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESIF YOU PLAY POKER a straight flush is precisely 5 consecutively ranked cards of the same suitANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 41. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESRULES AND LOOPHOLES rules can be precious for closing loopholes, balancing or unbalancing a gameANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 42. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESDO NOT PASS GO! DO NOT COLLECT $200!ANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 43. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESRULES AS TRIGGERS rules can also determine or trigger events or behaviors and move the game alongANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 44. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#5. RESOURCES in a game, resources are outright scarce, difficult to obtain and always valuableANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 45. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFLIVES / HEALTHANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 46. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFAMMO / UNITSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 47. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFCURRENCY / ACTIONSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 48. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESGAMES LECTURE 3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OFTIMEANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 49. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#6. CONFLICT conflict results from the players trying to accomplish the games goals within the games rules and boundariesANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 50. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESINEFFICIENCY games usually offer very inefficient means towards their objectivesANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 51. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCHALLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS games challenge players and provide a sense of achievement through sources of conflicts such as obstacles, opponents, and dilemmasANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 52. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESOBSTACLESANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 53. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESOPPONENTSANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 54. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESDILEMMASANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 55. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#7. BOUNDARIES boundaries separate the game from everything that is not the gameANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 56. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESPHYSICAL AND CONCEPTUAL BOUNDARIES not all kids in the playground are playing tags, even if they share the same spaceANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 57. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESIMPORTANCE OF BOUNDARIES boundaries provide both a set of constraints and contextANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 58. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESWHAT IF I COULD move the goal in a football game out of the field or ask a pair of aces to people playing poker at another table?ANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 59. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESCONTEXT when Quake Tournament ends, you are still on friendly terms with those people you tried to kill viciously just five minutes beforeANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 60. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMES#8. OUTCOME producing one or more winners and one or more losers is the natural outcome of any gameANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 61. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESBALANCING GAMEPLAY FOR OUTCOMES uncertainty is key, as nobody likes to play when the outcome is easily predictedANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 62. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESOUTCOMES AND PLAYER INTERACTIONS how a game manages its outcomes depends also on its player interaction patternsANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS
  • 63. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESBREAKANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Back in 15, right? Thanks.
  • 64. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESWORKSHOPANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS Lets get going
  • 65. GAME DESIGN :: LD3 – FORMAL ELEMENTS OF GAMESTHATS ALL FOLKS coming up next time is LD4, Dramatic elements and player embodimentANDREA @RESMINI :: HIT, HÖGSKOLAN I BORÅS