Connective Tissue

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Histology - Connective Tissue

Histology - Connective Tissue

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  • 1. Connective Tissue:-D
  • 2. Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function.* Epithelium * Muscle Coverings Movement Linings of surfaces* Connective * Nervous Support Control Bone, ligaments, fat Brain, nerves, spinal cord
  • 3. Connective TissueIt is a basic type of tissue, ofmesodermal origin,Which provides structuraland metabolic support fortissues and organs.
  • 4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS1- are formed of widely separated, few cellswith abundant extracellular matrix.2- Originate from mesenchyme ( anembryonic tissue ) which develops mainlyfrom mesoderm.3- most C.T. are vascular.
  • 5. Connective Tissue
  • 6. Functions:•Binding together•Support•Physicalprotection•Immune protection•Storage•Transport
  • 7. Classification of connective tissueA. Embryonal connective tissue•Mesenchyme•Mucous connective tissueB. Adult connective tissue (mature connective tissue)
  • 8. Connective tissue cells•Fibroblast•Macrophage•Mast cell•Plasma cell•Fat cell•Pigmented cell•Wandering blood cells
  • 9. Mesenchyme  stellate shape - ovoid nucleus - prominent nucleoli - fine chromatin - cytoplasm: paleFunction: Precursor
  • 10. Mucous connective tissue cells fibroblast Delicate fiber collagen fiber ground mucoprotein fibroblastsubstance Wharton’jelly umbilicallocation cord
  • 11. Mucous connective tissue fibroblastamorphous ground substance Assist. Prof. Kesorn Sripaoraya 1211/20/12
  • 12. - fibroblast- collagen fiber
  • 13. Adult connective tissue Connective tissue Specialized proper connective tissue General property Special property Cartilage(common property) Bone Reticular Loose Blood Adipose Dense Pigmented
  • 14. Connective tissue proper (general property)Loose connect tissue Dense connect tissueLoose irregularlyarranged connective tissue
  • 15. Loose connective tissue11/20/12 Assist. Prof. Kesorn Sripaoraya 16
  • 16. Collagen fibers
  • 17. Loose connective tissue• Contains abundant ground substance and tissue fluid, nearly all type of C.T. cells and less amounts of fibers.• Located in subcutaneous tissue, lamina propria of gastrointestinal & respiratory tracts, around blood vessels & organs and under serous membranes.• In inflammatory condition it swells because of increased extra-cellular fluid (Edema).
  • 18. Connective tissue cells• Resident type : •Transient type- fibroblast & (Wandering bloodfibrocyte cell)- adipose cell - lymphocytes- macrophage - eosinophils- mast cell - neutrophils- plasma cell - monocytes- pigmented cell
  • 19. FibroblastStellate shape Basophilic cyto. Pale nucleus Functions:  Structural production of - fibers and - ground substance
  • 20. Fibroblast
  • 21. Collagen synthesis•• polyribosomes polyribosomes polypeptide chain polypeptide chain•• rER & GA modified rER & GA modified  procollagen Vit C  procollagen•• Exocytosis Exocytosis•• Converted by enzyme Converted by enzyme•• Tropocollagen or Tropocollagen or collagen molecule collagen molecule•• Align to form the final Align to form the final collagen fibrils collagen fibrils
  • 22. collagen fibrils
  • 23. Type of collagen fibers On the basis of the combination of α chains they contain.Type I* :- loose connective tissue , dermis tendon , fibrocartilage & boneType II* :- cartilage & nucleus pulposusType III* :- slender fiber form network, reticular fiberType IV :- basement membraneType V & X :- perilacunar of cartilage
  • 24. Collagen type III, IV, VII 27
  • 25. Reticular Fibers•Thin collagen fibers arranged inframework instead of bundles.•Synthesized by the fibroblasts.•They form the reticular network ofsome organs such as lymph nodesand bone marrow.•They present also in basementmembrane.
  • 26. Elastic fibers (yellow fiber)•Slender, long and branching fibers in looseconnective tissue, but coarse bundles inelastic ligaments.•Formed by the fibroblasts and smoothmuscle cells.•Composed of protein elsatin and can bestretched to one and half times its originallength.•It is present in large arteries, larynx andtrachea, ligamentum flavum and frameworkof the spleen.
  • 27. Macrophage• They may be fixed or transient.• They are active phagocytes removing cell debris and protecting the body against foreign invaders.• They are derived from monocytes (transient) or from UDMC (histiocytes).• Highly motile, irregular in shape with pseudopodia.• Have dark nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm containing numerous lysosomes, vacuoles and residual bodies.
  • 28. Macrophage Irregular shape 1ST lysosomes (P) - homogeneous matrix 2nd lysosomes (S) - heterogeneous matrix Surface - finger’s projectn
  • 29. Macrophage Liver Lung
  • 30. Mast cell
  • 31. Mast cell-Heparin granule (dermis, submucosa)-Histamine (mucosa)- ECF-A (stimulate eosinophil release enzyme)
  • 32. Plasma cell• basophilic cytoplasm• eccentric nucleus• nucleus clockface or cartwheel• produces globulin antibody 11/20/12 Assist. Prof. Kesorn Sripaoraya 40
  • 33. Plasma cell• They are derived from B-lymphocytes.• Large ovoid cells with eccentrically placed nucleus.• Its cytoplasm is intensely basophilic (RER).• Its nucleus has the characteristic “clock- face” or “radial spoke” appearance.• They present in areas of chronic inflammation and foreign bodies, where they manufacture and secrete antibodies.
  • 34. Fat cell
  • 35. Fat / Adipose Cell in adipocytes.• Loose C.T. very rich• Two types of adipose C.T.• Unilocular (white fat) C.T.: its fat cells are of unilocular type, present in subcutaneous tissue, around organs and blood vessels.• Multilocular (brown fat) C.T., present in infants and hibernating animals, cells are rich in mitochondria, supply heat.
  • 36. Fat / Adipose Cell Brown adipose tissueWhite adipose tissue
  • 37. Dense irregular• Contains abundant amounts of fibers with less cells and ground substances.• Has tightly packed coarse collagen bundles arranged randomly in all directions, with few elastic fibers.• Fibroblasts and other less cells are arranged between the collagen fibers.• They are found in dermis of skin, capsule of organs, sheaths around nerves and dura mater.
  • 38. Dense irregular11/20/12 Assist. Prof. Kesorn Sripaoraya 49
  • 39. Dense regular• Contains abundant amounts of fibers with less cells and ground substances.• Has tightly packed coarse collagen bundles arranged in parallel fashion to form cord-like cylinders (tendons & ligaments) or sheets (aponeurosis).• Fibroblasts are arranged between the collagen fibers so they appears elongated with their dash-like elongated nuclei.• It is also called white fibrous C.T.
  • 40. Dense regular CTendon cell = collagen fibers
  • 41. Cell types Main product or Main function activityFibroblast Production of fibers and Structural ground subst.Plasma cell Production of antibody ImmunologicLymphocyte Production of Immunologic immunocompetent cellEosinophil Phagocytosis of Ag-Ab Immunologic complexMacrophage Phagocytosis of foreign Defense& Neutrophil subst. & bacteriaMast cell & Liberation of histamine DefenseBasophilAdipose Storage of neutral fat, Energy reservior; heat production heat production