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TISSUE
BY: - J. Y. BURADE
(LECTURER)
Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy, Amravati
CONENT
• INTRODUCTION
• TYPES OF TISSUE
• STRUCTURE & FUNCTION OF TISSUE
INTRODUCTION
• Tissues are groups of cells
that have a similar structure
and act together to perform a
specific function.
• The word tissue originates
from French, which means
“to weave.”
• Study of tissue is called as
“histology”.
TISSUE
EPITHELIAL CONNECTIVE MUSCULAR NERVOUS
COVERING
SECRETION
ABSORPTION
BINDING
SUPPORT
TRANSPORT
MOVEMENT
LOCOMOTIO
N
CONTROL &
CO-
ORDINATION
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
STRUCTURE:-
1. Sheet arrangement
2. Single or multiple layer
3. Closely packed
4. Many junctions
5. Form Covering & Lining throughout the body
6. Not covered by another tissue
FUNCTION:-
1. SELECTIVE BARRIER: - Limit movement of
substances in & out of the body.
2. SECRATORY: - Secretion secreted by cells
released on the free space.
3. PROTECTION :- Protection to the surface
BASMENT MEMBRANE
• Thin extracellular layer
• Form a surface
• Restrict passage of large
molecule
• Filtration
• Each epithelial tissue is given two names:
The first name indicates the number of layers present:
1. Simple (One)
- Composed of a single cell layer.
- Typically found where absorption and filtration occur and a thin epithelial
barrier is desirable.
2. Stratified (More than one)
- Consist of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other
- Common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important, such as the
skin surface and the lining of the mouth.
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE
CONT…
The second name describes the shape of the cells
Three common shapes of epithelial cells: nucleus will be same shape
1. SQUAMOUS CELLS – Flattened and scale like
2. CUBOIDAL CELL- Box like
3. COLUMNAR CELLS- Tall and column shaped
4. CILIATED CELLS- Fibrous shape
• Simple epithelia are easy to classify by cell shape because all cells in
the layer usually have the same shape.
• STRATIFIED EPITHELIA:
- Cells shapes usually differ among the different cell layers
- Named according the shape of the cells in the apical layer
CONT…
CONT…
• DESCRIPTION: Single layer of flattened cells with
disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the
simplest of the epithelia.
• FUNCTION: Allows passage of materials by
diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not
important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
• LOCATION: Kidney glomeruli. Air sacs of lungs;
lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels;
lining of ventral body cavity (Serosae)
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Stratified Ciliated Epithelium
Transitional Epithelium
Description: Gland may consist of a single cell or group of cells.
Specialized cells – secrets substance into duct.
The glands are of 2 types- Exocrine & Endocrine.
Glandular Epithelium
Description:
• Ductless gland
• The secretions of endocrine gland enters the interstitial fluid and then
diffuses directly into the blood stream.
• These secretions are called as hormones which regulate the metabolic
and physiological activities of the body in order to maintain
homeostasis.
Location: Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid
gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes and thymus
Function:
• Production of hormones that regulates various metabolic and
physiological activities.
• Pituitary gland secretes human growth hormone responsible for the
normal growth of individuals.
• Pineal gland secrets melatonin hormone responsible for maintaining
the circadian rhythms and seasonal functions.
• Thyroid gland secrets T3 and T4 hormone that are responsible for
maintaining the normal functioning of thyroid gland.
• Pancreas secrets insulin hormone responsible for controlling the blood
sugar level.
Endocrine Gland
Description:
Glands with duct.
Secretion of these glands release into ducts that empty
onto the skin surface or the lumen of a hollow organ.
Secretions:- Mucous, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva and
digestive system.
Secretory product release into the duct.
Example- Sudoriferous (sweat) glands, that produces
sweat to help to reduce body temp. and salivary glands
which secrete saliva that keeps the mouth moist.
Location: Sweat gland, sebaceous gland, earwax glands,
salivary glands and pancreas.
Function: Production of sweat, oil, earwax, saliva or
digestive system.
Classification:- Unicellular and multicellular
Exocrine Gland
• It is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue system in the
body.
• It binds together, supports and strengthen other body tissue as well
as protect and insulates internal organs.
• It is made up of fibres, cells and ground substances.
Connective Tissues
3 types of fibres are embedded in the extracellular matrix between the cells.
These fibres strengthen and support connective tissues.
Fibres
Collagen Fibres
• These are very strong and
allow tissue flexibility.
• Made up of protein collagen.
• It is the most abundant protein
making up about 25%-35% of
the total body protein.
• They often present in the
parallel bundles.
• It is found in – bone , cartilage,
tendons and ligaments.
Elastic Fibres
• These fibres are smaller in
diameter.
• These are made up of protein
elastin surrounded by a
glycoprotein named fibrillin which
gives strength and stability to
tissue.
• Elastic fibres have ability to return
to its original shape, a property
called as elasticity.
• These are found in- Skin, lungs,
arteries, veins, elastic cartilage,
periodontal ligament and foetal
tissue.
Reticular Fibres
• They consist of collagen
protein arranged in fine
bundles covered with
glycoprotein.
• These are much thinner than
collagen fibres.
• They give support and strength.
• These are found in- Liver, bone
marrow and lymphatic organs
• Each cell consist – Fibrinoblast, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells,
adipocytes and WBC
1. Fibrinoblast: - They are the chief cells of connective tissue.
They are large, flat cells with branching processes.
2. Macrophages: - These cells develop from monocytes, a type, of WBC.
There are 2 types of macrophages.
Play important role in immune response.
a. Fixed macrophages;- Present in particular tissue such as alveolar
macrophages in lungs or spleen macrophages in spleen.
b. Wandering macrophages: - ability to move throughout the tissue and
gather at the site of infection to carry phagocytosis.
Cells
3. Plasma cells:- A small cell that develops from type of white blood cells is
called as beta- lymphocytes. Takes important role in the immune response.
They are present in GIT and respiratory tract , salivary gland, lymph node,
spleen and red bone marrow.
4. Mast cells: - They produce histamine that that dilate the small blood
vessels as a part of the inflammatory responses.
5. Adipocytes: -These are also called as a fat cells or adipose cells. They store
fats. They are found deep to the skin and around heart and kidneys.
6. White blood cells:- In response to inflammatory reaction they migrate
from blood to connective tissue . E.g., Neutrophils gather at the sites of
infection and eosinophils migrate to the sites of allergic response.
Cells
Description:
• It is an amorphous gel like substance surrounding the cells.
• In the ground substance, cells and fibres are suspended.
• Ground substance is primarily composed- water ,
glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronan), proteoglycans,
glycoproteins, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate and
dermatan sulphate.
• The ground substance support cells, binds them together,
stores water and provides a medium through which
substances are exchanged between the blood and cells.
Ground Substance
Function:
• It acts as energy store.
• It provides protection to different body
organs.
• It provide structural framework to the
body.
• It connects different body tissues.
• It connects epithelial tissues to muscle
fibres.
• It supply hormones to all over body
Classification of Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
1. Areolar connective tissue
2. Adipose connective tissue
3. Reticular connective tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
1. Dense regular connective
tissue
2. Dense irregular connective
tissue
3. Elastic connective tissue
Cartilage
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Fibro cartilage
3. Elastic cartilage
Bone
Liquid Connective
Tissue
1. Blood tissue
2. Lymph
• These fibres are loosely woven.
• It has a large proportion of ground
substance.
• They are easily distorted.
• On distortion they become tough
and resist to further deformation.
1. Areolar connective tissue
2. Adipose connective tissue
3. Reticular connective tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Description:- They form a loose network in the intracellular
material and are not arranged in a particular pattern.
Consist:- Fibres- Collagen, Elastic and reticular fibres.
Cell- Fibroblast, macrophages, plasma cells,
adipocytes and mast cells.
Location: - Present below skin, fill the spaces between
muscles, supports blood vessels and nerves in the
alimentary canal.
Yellow elastic fibres are found in arteries and white elastic
fibres are found in kidney and brain.
Function: - It gives strength, elasticity and support to tissue.
Areolar Connective Tissue
Description: - It consists of adipocytes which stores fats as a large centrally located
droplet.
Location: - It is present in the subcutaneous layer deep in the skin, around heart,
kidneys and yellow bone marrow.
Function: -
1. It prevents heat loss from body.
2. It acts as a reservoir of energy.
3. It gives shapes to the limbs and body.
4. It protects underlying organ from injury.
Adipose Connective Tissue
Description: - It consists of reticular fibres
and reticular cells.
Location: - It is present in the supporting
framework of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, red
bone marrow and is found around the blood
vessels and muscles.
Function: - It forms stroma of organs, binds
together smooth muscle tissue cells, filters
and remove worn-out blood cells in spleen
and microbes in the lymph node.
Reticular Connective Tissue
• In this, fibres are densely packed, the fibres content is higher and cell
content is lower as compared to loose connective tissue.
Dense Connective Tissue
1. Dense regular connective tissue
2. Dense irregular connective tissue
3. Elastic connective tissue
Description: - Bundles of collagen fibres are arranged in parallel
patterns to provide strength to tissue. Fibrinoblast are appears in rows
between the fibres. It is silvery white in colour and tough in nature.
Location: - It forms tendons (attach muscle to bone) and ligaments
(attach bone to bone).
Function: - It provides strong attachment to structures.
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Description: It contains collagen fibres that are irregularly arranged and
few fibroblasts are appears in rows between the fibres.
Location: It is present in tissue beneath the skin, dermis of skin,
periosteum of bone, membrane capsules around kidneys, liver, testes,
lymph node, pericardium of heart and heart valves.
Function: It provides strength to different organs.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Description:
1. It is the hardest connective tissue
2. It has calcified matrix containing
many collagen fibres.
3. It composed of 25% of water, 30% of
organic material and 45%inorganic
salts.
4. It is well vascularised.
5. Bone is arranged in concentric ring
structures called as osteons.
6. At the centre of ring is a structure
called as Haversian canal.
Bone
Haversian canal:
1. Central Haversian channel: It contains
blood vessels and nerves.
2. Lamellae: Surrounding the central canal
concentric plates of bone are present called as
lamellae.
3. Lacunae: It contains mature bone cells called
as osteocytes
4. Canaliculi: Projecting from the lacunae are
canaliculi, network of minute canals
containing the processes of osteocytes.
Location
It present in
compact and
spongy bone
tissue.
Function:
1. To form supporting frame work of the body.
2. To give protection to delicate organs.
3. To form joints essential for locomotion of body.
4. To form RBC in red bone marrow.
5. To provide store of calcium salts.
6. It gives supports and maintains shape.
Description:
• It is a connective tissue with liquid extracellular matrix called as blood plasma.
• The blood cells are suspended in the blood plasma.
• It is composed of 55% plasma and 45% of cells.
• Blood plasma is straw coloured liquid in which the blood cells are suspended.
• Plasma is composed 0f 90-92% of water 7% plasma proteins and clotting factors, and 1% of mineral salts, sugar, hormones and
vitamins.
Blood cells are of three types:
1. Erythrocytes(RBC): These cells transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from them.
2. Leucocytes (WBC): These are involved in phagocytosis, immunity and allergic reaction.
3. Thrombocytes (Platelets): Theses cells participates in the blood clotting mechanism.
Location: It is present within blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins) and within the chambers of heart.
Function:
1. RBCs transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from them.
2. WBCs are involved in phagocytosis, immunity and allergic reaction.
3. Platelets participate in the blood clotting process.
Blood
• Muscular tissue consist of
elongated cells called muscle
fibres that can use ATP is generate
force.
• Three type muscular tissues are
present:
1. Skeletal / Striated/ Voluntary
muscle tissue
2. Cardiac mascle
3. Smooth / non-striated/
involuntary muscles tissue
Muscle Tissue
Description:
The cells are cylindrical in shape.
The fibres are parallel to each other.
The length of muscle fibres is 30-40 cm.
They have several nuclei located at periphery.
It show alternate dark and light band i. e. striations and hence the name is
straitened muscle.
The muscles are attached to the bones hence called as skeletal muscles.
The activity of fibres is within ones control hence, the name is voluntary
muscle.
Location: It is usually attached to bones by tendons.
Function: It helps to gives motion, posture, heat production and protection.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Description:
It is present in the myocardium of heart wall.
It is striated but involuntary i.e. the activity of
fibres is beyond once control hence called as
involuntary muscle tissue.
Each fibre is parallel to each other, branched
and multinucleated.
Two cardiac muscle fibres are attached by
thickened plasma membrane called as
intercalated disc.
The intercalated disc contains desmosomes as
well as gap junction.
Location: It is present in the heart wall.
Function: It pumps blood to all parts of the
body, contracts the atria and ventricles of the
heart, causes rhythmic beating of the heart.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Description:
• A smooth muscle fibre is usually small
• It is thickest in the middle and tapering at the ends.
• It contains single, centrally located nucleus.
• The cells are spindle shaped.
• Alternate light and dark bands are absent hence they are called as smooth/ non
striated.
• Activity of these fibres is beyond once control or wish and hence called as
involuntary.
Location: It is present in the wall of blood vessels, wall of lymph vessels,
alimentary tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder and uterus.
Function: It gives motion (contraction of blood vessels, airways, propulsion of
food through, GIT, contraction of urinary bladder and gall bladder).
Smooth Muscle Tissue
It is made up of two types of nerves cells.
Nervous Tissue
Neurons
Description:
It is made up of cell body, axons, dendrites, and axon terminals.
1. Cell Body: - It contains nucleus and other organelles.
2. Dendrites: - These are input portions of neuron. These are usually short and highly branched forms tree like
structure. Each nerve cell contains many dendrites.
3. Axon: - Each nerve cell contains single axon which is thin, long and cylindrical process. It is major output portion of
a neuron which conducts the signal to effector organs. The axon are surrounded by white, fatty substance called as
myelin sheath. The unmyelinated regions between the myelin segments are called as nodes of ranvier.
Location
It present in the nervous
system
Function
It exhibits sensitivity to various types of stimuli, converts stimuli into nerve impulses
(action potentials), and conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscle fibres of glands.
THANK YOU!

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TISSUE.pptx

  • 1. TISSUE BY: - J. Y. BURADE (LECTURER) Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy, Amravati
  • 2. CONENT • INTRODUCTION • TYPES OF TISSUE • STRUCTURE & FUNCTION OF TISSUE
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Tissues are groups of cells that have a similar structure and act together to perform a specific function. • The word tissue originates from French, which means “to weave.” • Study of tissue is called as “histology”. TISSUE EPITHELIAL CONNECTIVE MUSCULAR NERVOUS COVERING SECRETION ABSORPTION BINDING SUPPORT TRANSPORT MOVEMENT LOCOMOTIO N CONTROL & CO- ORDINATION
  • 4. EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTURE:- 1. Sheet arrangement 2. Single or multiple layer 3. Closely packed 4. Many junctions 5. Form Covering & Lining throughout the body 6. Not covered by another tissue FUNCTION:- 1. SELECTIVE BARRIER: - Limit movement of substances in & out of the body. 2. SECRATORY: - Secretion secreted by cells released on the free space. 3. PROTECTION :- Protection to the surface
  • 5. BASMENT MEMBRANE • Thin extracellular layer • Form a surface • Restrict passage of large molecule • Filtration
  • 6. • Each epithelial tissue is given two names: The first name indicates the number of layers present: 1. Simple (One) - Composed of a single cell layer. - Typically found where absorption and filtration occur and a thin epithelial barrier is desirable. 2. Stratified (More than one) - Consist of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other - Common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important, such as the skin surface and the lining of the mouth. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE
  • 7. CONT… The second name describes the shape of the cells Three common shapes of epithelial cells: nucleus will be same shape 1. SQUAMOUS CELLS – Flattened and scale like 2. CUBOIDAL CELL- Box like 3. COLUMNAR CELLS- Tall and column shaped 4. CILIATED CELLS- Fibrous shape
  • 8. • Simple epithelia are easy to classify by cell shape because all cells in the layer usually have the same shape. • STRATIFIED EPITHELIA: - Cells shapes usually differ among the different cell layers - Named according the shape of the cells in the apical layer CONT…
  • 10. • DESCRIPTION: Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia. • FUNCTION: Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae. • LOCATION: Kidney glomeruli. Air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (Serosae) SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
  • 19. Description: Gland may consist of a single cell or group of cells. Specialized cells – secrets substance into duct. The glands are of 2 types- Exocrine & Endocrine. Glandular Epithelium
  • 20. Description: • Ductless gland • The secretions of endocrine gland enters the interstitial fluid and then diffuses directly into the blood stream. • These secretions are called as hormones which regulate the metabolic and physiological activities of the body in order to maintain homeostasis. Location: Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes and thymus Function: • Production of hormones that regulates various metabolic and physiological activities. • Pituitary gland secretes human growth hormone responsible for the normal growth of individuals. • Pineal gland secrets melatonin hormone responsible for maintaining the circadian rhythms and seasonal functions. • Thyroid gland secrets T3 and T4 hormone that are responsible for maintaining the normal functioning of thyroid gland. • Pancreas secrets insulin hormone responsible for controlling the blood sugar level. Endocrine Gland
  • 21. Description: Glands with duct. Secretion of these glands release into ducts that empty onto the skin surface or the lumen of a hollow organ. Secretions:- Mucous, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva and digestive system. Secretory product release into the duct. Example- Sudoriferous (sweat) glands, that produces sweat to help to reduce body temp. and salivary glands which secrete saliva that keeps the mouth moist. Location: Sweat gland, sebaceous gland, earwax glands, salivary glands and pancreas. Function: Production of sweat, oil, earwax, saliva or digestive system. Classification:- Unicellular and multicellular Exocrine Gland
  • 22. • It is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue system in the body. • It binds together, supports and strengthen other body tissue as well as protect and insulates internal organs. • It is made up of fibres, cells and ground substances. Connective Tissues
  • 23. 3 types of fibres are embedded in the extracellular matrix between the cells. These fibres strengthen and support connective tissues. Fibres Collagen Fibres • These are very strong and allow tissue flexibility. • Made up of protein collagen. • It is the most abundant protein making up about 25%-35% of the total body protein. • They often present in the parallel bundles. • It is found in – bone , cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Elastic Fibres • These fibres are smaller in diameter. • These are made up of protein elastin surrounded by a glycoprotein named fibrillin which gives strength and stability to tissue. • Elastic fibres have ability to return to its original shape, a property called as elasticity. • These are found in- Skin, lungs, arteries, veins, elastic cartilage, periodontal ligament and foetal tissue. Reticular Fibres • They consist of collagen protein arranged in fine bundles covered with glycoprotein. • These are much thinner than collagen fibres. • They give support and strength. • These are found in- Liver, bone marrow and lymphatic organs
  • 24. • Each cell consist – Fibrinoblast, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, adipocytes and WBC 1. Fibrinoblast: - They are the chief cells of connective tissue. They are large, flat cells with branching processes. 2. Macrophages: - These cells develop from monocytes, a type, of WBC. There are 2 types of macrophages. Play important role in immune response. a. Fixed macrophages;- Present in particular tissue such as alveolar macrophages in lungs or spleen macrophages in spleen. b. Wandering macrophages: - ability to move throughout the tissue and gather at the site of infection to carry phagocytosis. Cells
  • 25. 3. Plasma cells:- A small cell that develops from type of white blood cells is called as beta- lymphocytes. Takes important role in the immune response. They are present in GIT and respiratory tract , salivary gland, lymph node, spleen and red bone marrow. 4. Mast cells: - They produce histamine that that dilate the small blood vessels as a part of the inflammatory responses. 5. Adipocytes: -These are also called as a fat cells or adipose cells. They store fats. They are found deep to the skin and around heart and kidneys. 6. White blood cells:- In response to inflammatory reaction they migrate from blood to connective tissue . E.g., Neutrophils gather at the sites of infection and eosinophils migrate to the sites of allergic response. Cells
  • 26. Description: • It is an amorphous gel like substance surrounding the cells. • In the ground substance, cells and fibres are suspended. • Ground substance is primarily composed- water , glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronan), proteoglycans, glycoproteins, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate. • The ground substance support cells, binds them together, stores water and provides a medium through which substances are exchanged between the blood and cells. Ground Substance Function: • It acts as energy store. • It provides protection to different body organs. • It provide structural framework to the body. • It connects different body tissues. • It connects epithelial tissues to muscle fibres. • It supply hormones to all over body
  • 27. Classification of Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue 1. Areolar connective tissue 2. Adipose connective tissue 3. Reticular connective tissue Dense Connective Tissue 1. Dense regular connective tissue 2. Dense irregular connective tissue 3. Elastic connective tissue Cartilage 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. Fibro cartilage 3. Elastic cartilage Bone Liquid Connective Tissue 1. Blood tissue 2. Lymph
  • 28. • These fibres are loosely woven. • It has a large proportion of ground substance. • They are easily distorted. • On distortion they become tough and resist to further deformation. 1. Areolar connective tissue 2. Adipose connective tissue 3. Reticular connective tissue Loose Connective Tissue
  • 29. Description:- They form a loose network in the intracellular material and are not arranged in a particular pattern. Consist:- Fibres- Collagen, Elastic and reticular fibres. Cell- Fibroblast, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes and mast cells. Location: - Present below skin, fill the spaces between muscles, supports blood vessels and nerves in the alimentary canal. Yellow elastic fibres are found in arteries and white elastic fibres are found in kidney and brain. Function: - It gives strength, elasticity and support to tissue. Areolar Connective Tissue
  • 30. Description: - It consists of adipocytes which stores fats as a large centrally located droplet. Location: - It is present in the subcutaneous layer deep in the skin, around heart, kidneys and yellow bone marrow. Function: - 1. It prevents heat loss from body. 2. It acts as a reservoir of energy. 3. It gives shapes to the limbs and body. 4. It protects underlying organ from injury. Adipose Connective Tissue
  • 31. Description: - It consists of reticular fibres and reticular cells. Location: - It is present in the supporting framework of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, red bone marrow and is found around the blood vessels and muscles. Function: - It forms stroma of organs, binds together smooth muscle tissue cells, filters and remove worn-out blood cells in spleen and microbes in the lymph node. Reticular Connective Tissue
  • 32. • In this, fibres are densely packed, the fibres content is higher and cell content is lower as compared to loose connective tissue. Dense Connective Tissue 1. Dense regular connective tissue 2. Dense irregular connective tissue 3. Elastic connective tissue
  • 33. Description: - Bundles of collagen fibres are arranged in parallel patterns to provide strength to tissue. Fibrinoblast are appears in rows between the fibres. It is silvery white in colour and tough in nature. Location: - It forms tendons (attach muscle to bone) and ligaments (attach bone to bone). Function: - It provides strong attachment to structures. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
  • 34. Description: It contains collagen fibres that are irregularly arranged and few fibroblasts are appears in rows between the fibres. Location: It is present in tissue beneath the skin, dermis of skin, periosteum of bone, membrane capsules around kidneys, liver, testes, lymph node, pericardium of heart and heart valves. Function: It provides strength to different organs. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
  • 35. Description: 1. It is the hardest connective tissue 2. It has calcified matrix containing many collagen fibres. 3. It composed of 25% of water, 30% of organic material and 45%inorganic salts. 4. It is well vascularised. 5. Bone is arranged in concentric ring structures called as osteons. 6. At the centre of ring is a structure called as Haversian canal. Bone Haversian canal: 1. Central Haversian channel: It contains blood vessels and nerves. 2. Lamellae: Surrounding the central canal concentric plates of bone are present called as lamellae. 3. Lacunae: It contains mature bone cells called as osteocytes 4. Canaliculi: Projecting from the lacunae are canaliculi, network of minute canals containing the processes of osteocytes. Location It present in compact and spongy bone tissue. Function: 1. To form supporting frame work of the body. 2. To give protection to delicate organs. 3. To form joints essential for locomotion of body. 4. To form RBC in red bone marrow. 5. To provide store of calcium salts. 6. It gives supports and maintains shape.
  • 36. Description: • It is a connective tissue with liquid extracellular matrix called as blood plasma. • The blood cells are suspended in the blood plasma. • It is composed of 55% plasma and 45% of cells. • Blood plasma is straw coloured liquid in which the blood cells are suspended. • Plasma is composed 0f 90-92% of water 7% plasma proteins and clotting factors, and 1% of mineral salts, sugar, hormones and vitamins. Blood cells are of three types: 1. Erythrocytes(RBC): These cells transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from them. 2. Leucocytes (WBC): These are involved in phagocytosis, immunity and allergic reaction. 3. Thrombocytes (Platelets): Theses cells participates in the blood clotting mechanism. Location: It is present within blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins) and within the chambers of heart. Function: 1. RBCs transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from them. 2. WBCs are involved in phagocytosis, immunity and allergic reaction. 3. Platelets participate in the blood clotting process. Blood
  • 37. • Muscular tissue consist of elongated cells called muscle fibres that can use ATP is generate force. • Three type muscular tissues are present: 1. Skeletal / Striated/ Voluntary muscle tissue 2. Cardiac mascle 3. Smooth / non-striated/ involuntary muscles tissue Muscle Tissue
  • 38. Description: The cells are cylindrical in shape. The fibres are parallel to each other. The length of muscle fibres is 30-40 cm. They have several nuclei located at periphery. It show alternate dark and light band i. e. striations and hence the name is straitened muscle. The muscles are attached to the bones hence called as skeletal muscles. The activity of fibres is within ones control hence, the name is voluntary muscle. Location: It is usually attached to bones by tendons. Function: It helps to gives motion, posture, heat production and protection. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
  • 39. Description: It is present in the myocardium of heart wall. It is striated but involuntary i.e. the activity of fibres is beyond once control hence called as involuntary muscle tissue. Each fibre is parallel to each other, branched and multinucleated. Two cardiac muscle fibres are attached by thickened plasma membrane called as intercalated disc. The intercalated disc contains desmosomes as well as gap junction. Location: It is present in the heart wall. Function: It pumps blood to all parts of the body, contracts the atria and ventricles of the heart, causes rhythmic beating of the heart. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  • 40. Description: • A smooth muscle fibre is usually small • It is thickest in the middle and tapering at the ends. • It contains single, centrally located nucleus. • The cells are spindle shaped. • Alternate light and dark bands are absent hence they are called as smooth/ non striated. • Activity of these fibres is beyond once control or wish and hence called as involuntary. Location: It is present in the wall of blood vessels, wall of lymph vessels, alimentary tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder and uterus. Function: It gives motion (contraction of blood vessels, airways, propulsion of food through, GIT, contraction of urinary bladder and gall bladder). Smooth Muscle Tissue
  • 41. It is made up of two types of nerves cells. Nervous Tissue Neurons Description: It is made up of cell body, axons, dendrites, and axon terminals. 1. Cell Body: - It contains nucleus and other organelles. 2. Dendrites: - These are input portions of neuron. These are usually short and highly branched forms tree like structure. Each nerve cell contains many dendrites. 3. Axon: - Each nerve cell contains single axon which is thin, long and cylindrical process. It is major output portion of a neuron which conducts the signal to effector organs. The axon are surrounded by white, fatty substance called as myelin sheath. The unmyelinated regions between the myelin segments are called as nodes of ranvier. Location It present in the nervous system Function It exhibits sensitivity to various types of stimuli, converts stimuli into nerve impulses (action potentials), and conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscle fibres of glands.