Athens and Sparta had very different strategies in the war:
Athens aimed to use its navy to cut off Sparta’s allies
Sparta aimed to use its army to attack Athens directly
The war was long and bitterly fought, but Athens was eventually defeated for several reasons:
Disastrous plague struck Athens
The total and catastrophic failure of the expedition to Sicily
Athens repeatedly ostracised many of it’s generals who had lost battles
Both Athens and Sparta were weakened by the war, Sparta’s domination would only last for 25 years
Spartan domination was ended in 378 B.C. by the city of Thebes, which revolted against Spartan rule, and itself dominated Greece from 375 – 338 B.C.
Thebes is most famously known today for it’s “sacred band” of warriors, which made up of 150 pairs of men
338 B.C. – at the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip II of Macedon defeats the Thebans, and establishes the League of Corinth to organize the Greek cities for a planned campaign against Persia
Alexander’s Empire was split among his generals at his death This situation would remain relatively stable until the rise of Rome and its conquest of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean in the 1 st and 2 nd centuries B.C.