Peloponnesian War


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A PowerPoint developed for a secondary level Ancient Civilizations class. Items in red are what I considered to be terminal concepts.

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Peloponnesian War

  1. 1. End of Greek Cooperation : Formation of the Delian League • Throughout 479 & 478 BC, the Greeks continued the war against Persia • Withdraw of Sparta from the Alliance in 478BC • Creation of the Delian League in 478 BC • Military campaigns continue until 450 BC • Despite the end of the Persian threat, the Athenians sought stricter control over the league • The Delian League becomes an Athenian Empire The Peloponnesian War
  2. 2. <ul><li>Athens: The Age of Pericles </li></ul><ul><li>The leading statesman of the Athenian empire, and thus gave his name to the period </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilding of Athens & the Acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>• Zenith of Athenian literature as represented by Sophocles and Euripides </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Greece: Internal Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>With her defeat of the Persians, Athens became more and more dominating over the Delian League </li></ul><ul><li>Athens used Delian League money to rebuild Athens after Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>The resentment erupts into one of the longest and most dramatic events in Greek history, the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Internal Challenges : </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak of War </li></ul><ul><li>By 430 BC, the aggressiveness of Athens had alarmed the allies of Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian interference in a conflict between Corinth (Sparta’s naval ally) & Corcyra (Corinth’s most bitter enemy) </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian demands on Potidaea </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting of the Peloponnesian League and declaration of war </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Peloponnesian War : </li></ul><ul><li>Opposing Sides </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>– Head of the Peloponnesian League, </li></ul><ul><li>possessed no empire but had many allies </li></ul><ul><li>– Greatest army in Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><li>– Relied upon its empire to provide grain for its people and tribute to pay for its navy </li></ul><ul><li>– Greatest navy in Greece </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Archidamian War (431-421 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>First ten years of the war named for Archidamus, one of the Spartan </li></ul><ul><li>kings at the beginning of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan invasion of Attica </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian raids upon the coastal cities of the </li></ul><ul><li>Peloponnese </li></ul><ul><li>Plague attacks Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Pericles </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of Nicias in 421 BC </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The Breakdown of Peace & the Final Defeat of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>The Syracuse Expedition (415 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>– Alcibiades and his plans </li></ul><ul><li>– Failure of Expedition - Major defeat for Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta asks Persia for help! Needed navy </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of the Athenian fleet in the Dardanelles (405 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Athens surrenders (404 BC) </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The Defeat of Athens: </li></ul><ul><li>Results & Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Surrender of her empire and the tearing down </li></ul><ul><li>of the “long walls” </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of the Thirty Tyrants, but democracy is restored in 403 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Athens never regained her power although </li></ul><ul><li>democracy did survive </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of any great political leaders after </li></ul><ul><li>the death off Pericles had doomed Athens </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks had proven that they could unite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allegiance remained to city-state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of Greece was still elusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although Sparta won, they did not know what to do with their victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparta relied too heavily on her allies for everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power vacuum left by the defeat of Athens and the lack of imperial will on the part of the Spartans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum would be filled by Philip of Macedon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks powerless to do anything about it </li></ul></ul>