Danger of a helot revolt led to Sparta becoming a militarystate.Danger of a revolution among the poor farmers of Athensled to it becoming a democracy.The danger of invasion by the Persian army led to glory forboth Sparta and Athens!
The Persian Wars Persians attacked Greek city-states in Ionia (Anatolia) Athens sent ships and soldiers to help the Ionian Greeks. Persian King Darius vowed to destroy Athens in revenge! Athenians defeat Persians AND defend their city-state. Legend of Marathon!
The Persian Wars Ten years later. . . King Darius is dead-his son Xerxes vows to CRUSH Greece! Sends ENORMOUS invasion force to Greece by way of the Hellespont. Greek city-states divided. They are scared of Xerxes and some want to sacrifice Athens to the Persians.
The Persian Wars 300 Spartans lead the way along with 7000 other Greek soldiers against the Persians. All 300 were killed at the Battle of Thermopylae, but the set an example for ALL Greeks. Persians headed for Athens. . .
The Persian Wars The citizens of Athens followed the advice of Themistocles and evacuated the city to fight at sea. Xerxes burned Athens and then met the Greek navy in a narrow channel off the island of Salamis . The Greek triremes battered the Persian warships and 1/3 of fleet was lost. The Spartans defeated the rest of the Persian army at Platea.
The Persian Wars-Results Persian threat is ended. Greek city-states have a new sense of confidence and freedom. Athens THRIVES! Delian League-led by Athens (140 city-states) Drove Persians from surrounding territory Athens enters its GOLDEN AGE Complete # 2 on page 119
Athens’ Golden Age A time when Drama, Poetry, Art, Philosophy, Architecture, and Science ALL reached new heights! Age of Pericles 461-429 B.C.
Pericles• Athens’ leading citizen. • 495-429 BC • Politician, orator, general • Was also stoic, aloof, handsome, and engaging. • Also had a large, oddly shaped head, which is why all his portrayals have that helmet on.
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens1) To strengthen Athenian Democracy2) To hold and strengthen the empire3) To glorify Athens
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens1) To strengthen Athenian Democracy increased the number of paid public officials-even the poorest could serve if elected or chosen by lot Direct Democracy-citizens rule directly, not through a representative Look at the chart on p. 120-Answer questions 1 & 2 with your partner.
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens2) To hold and strengthen the empire Pericles wanted to build wealth and power of Athens Built powerful navy for safety and trade.
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens3) To glorify Athens Pericles used money from Delian League to buy gold, ivory, and marble. Built Parthenon-all without the approval of the Delian League.
Its main function was to house the grand statue of Athena
• In 1687, the Venetians were fighting the Ottoman Empire in Athens. • Unsurprisingly, the Ottomans had fortified the acropolis and were holding out there. • They used the Parthenon to store gunpowder (great idea!). A Venetian cannonball hit the Parthenon, detonated the gunpowder, and blew up a good chunk of the temple. • Most of the temple lay in ruins. • In 1806, Lord Elgin brought many of the sculptures to London (he sawed them off). They’re now known as the Elgin Marbles.
•Read “A Voice from the Past onpage 121.•Discuss this question with yourpartner. . . How accurate do youconsider Pericles’ statement thatAthenian democracy was in thehands of “the whole people”?•THEN complete #2 of the sectionassessment on page 125.
Greek TheatrePericles invested a great deal of money into the glorification of Athens. . .Theatre• It was during the golden age that the great playwrights lived• Tragedy: Serious drama-love, hate, war, betrayal.• Tragedy: Always featured a HERO with a tragic flaw.• Comedy: Contained slapstick and crude humor.• Comedy: Satires-made fun of almost everyone in Classical Greece.
Greek Art Greek sculptors during the golden age aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. Faces showed neither laughter nor anger, only serenity. Also tried to capture grace of human body in motion. Order, balance, and proportion-Classical Art
The Peloponnesian Wars Tensions had been building for years as Athens had grown. Leaders in both city- states wanted war b/c they believed they would win. Sparta had land advantage Athens had sea advantage Pericles’ strategy was to avoid land battles and wait to strike from the sea.
The Peloponnesian Wars Spartans march into Athenian territory. They burned the local food supply Athenians were safe inside walls of city-state Ships could still bring food from other colonies. Two events spelled eventual disaster for Athens. . .
Sparta gains the edge. . . A PLAGUE! A plague killed between 1/3 and 2/3 of the population. Pericles also died from the plague. Assembly sends huge fleet of 27,000 soldiers to Syracuse, one of Sparta’s wealthiest allies. Suffered TOTAL destruction. Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.E
War brings change. . . Athens loses its short-lived empire, power, and wealth People began to lose confidence in democratic governments Weak, corrupt, traitorous rulers