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# Problem Solving Using Diamond Model

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Diamond model is used for analyzing issues and solving problems. It outlines the basic steps for improving quality and motivation in decision making and problem solving.

Diamond model is used for analyzing issues and solving problems. It outlines the basic steps for improving quality and motivation in decision making and problem solving.

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• 2. Diamond Model – A Method for Analyzing Problems Ground the problem in reality Develop a conceptual model to address the problem Evaluate how well the model applies to the problem Implement a solution that solves the problem Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007.
• 3. Diamond Model – A Method for Analyzing Problems Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007. Problem Formulation Model Building Model Evaluation Problem Solving Case Reality Conceptual Model Solution Problem
• 4. Circle Chart– Four Basic Steps in Inventing Options Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007.
• Step II. Analysis
• Diagnose the problem
• Sort symptoms into categories
• Suggest causes
• Observe what is lacking
• Note barriers to resolving the problem
• Step III. Approaches
• What are possible strategies or prescriptions?
• What are some theoretical cures?
• Step I. Problem
• What’s wrong?
• What are current symptoms?
• What are disliked facts contrasted with a preferred situation?
• Step IV. Action Ideas
• What might be done?
• What specific steps might be taken to deal with the problem?
WHAT IS WRONG WHAT MIGHT BE DONE IN THEORY IN THE REAL WORLD
• 5. Running the Bases of Diamond Model to Address a Problem Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007. Problem Formulation Model Building Model Evaluation Problem Solving Case Reality Conceptual Model Solution Problem
• Describe Case Reality
• Visit & study it
• Map & diagnose it
• Question/Problem
• From who’s perspective?
• Identify clients/users
• Criterion - Relevance
• Develop Model
• Crucial proposition
• Plausible alternatives
• Key assumptions / context
• Criterion – Validity
• Study / Evaluate the Model
• Evidence substantiating model
• Revisions needed to apply model
• Test model revisions, qualifications
• Data collection & analysis methods
• Criterion – Truth
• Apply / Implement solution
• Knowledge for what? Who?
• Apply findings to problem
• Develop implementation plan
• Criterion - Impact
• 6. A Good Solution is a Strong Argument Source: Stephen Toulmin, The Uses of Argument , Essay III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958.
• EVIDENCE
• minor premise
• data backing reason
• warrants
• REASON
• major premise
• logic underlying claim
• grounds
• CLAIM
• proposal
• proposition
• hypothesis
• QUALIFIERS
• when claim holds
• assumptions
• boundary conditions
• contingencies
• RESERVATIONS
• Limitations – Grounds for Rebuttal
• logical refutations: validity
• empirical refutations: truth
• cogency of argument: persuasiveness
• 7. Argument for Diamond Model on Problems Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007. EVIDENCE (minor premise) Low quality decisions are often produced by jumping to solutions without adequate problem formulation, by selecting models that are invalid or too general in addressing the particulars of a case, or that do not permit local adaptation or reinvention. RESERVATIONS Unless the problem, question, model, or solution are pre-determined, one-sided or closed-minded. Unless time or talents prevent analyst from covering all four bases of the diamond model. CLAIM Diamond model promotes learning & understanding of a case or problem. QUALIFIERS Most likely… REASON (major premise) Decision quality and creativity increase by applying problem formulation, model development and testing, and problem solving steps in a consistent, balanced way.
• 8. Steps for Improving Quality & Motivation in Decision Making & Problem Solving
• Insist on data, adopt evidence-based decision making.
• Obtain multiple perspectives and alternatives on question or issue.
• Challenge and debate the assumptions and conclusions, consider improbable or unpopular perspectives.
• Develop strong argument for proposed solution (claim, reasons, evidence, assumptions and reservations).
• Generate solution quality and motivation by involving different stakeholders in stages of planning or problem solving process.
• Reservations
• These steps do not guarantee success. However, they decrease cognitive biases that lead to faulty decisions and increase motivations of relevant stakeholders who are critical for implementing the decision.
Source: Lecture Notes (Lecturer: Alan Fine), Innovation & Change , University of Minnesota, 2007.