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Green Book 7

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  • 1. Cellular Energy
  • 2. Created by Wesley R. McCammon Pisgah High School
  • 3. I. Cellular Energy
    • All Living cells use energy
      • Energy is released when chemical bonds are broken.
      • When chemical bonds in foods are broken cells obtain energy.
  • 4. I. Cellular Energy
    • The main form of energy is adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
      • Living things use ATP to store and release energy.
      • ATP has 3 parts
        • Adenine – an amino acid
        • Ribose – a sugar moleucle
        • Three phosphate groups
  • 5. I. Cellular Energy
  • 6. I. Cellular Energy
      • ADP only has 2 phosphate groups (adenosine diphosphate)
      • AMP has only 1 phosphate group (adenosine monophosphate)
      • When a phosphate group is added energy is store. When a phosphate group is removed energy is released.
      • ATP (energy rich)  ADP + energy
      • ADP + Pi  ATP (energy rich)
      • ATP is NOT good for long term energy storage
  • 7. I. Cellular Energy
    • ATP Cycle
  • 8. ATP/ADP Cycle
  • 9. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular respiration is a series of reactions that break down food for energy in the presence of oxygen.
    • There are three parts of aerobic cellular respiration: Glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain.
  • 10. Structure of the Mitochondrion
  • 11. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • Glycolysis
      • Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration.
        • Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
        • Glucose is broken down into the following end products
          • 2 ATP
          • 2 Pyruvic acids
          • 2 NADH
  • 12. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • Glycolysis (con’t)
      • Pyruvic acid is used in the next stage of cellular respiration; NADH is used in the last stage of cellular respiration.
      • NADH is a carrier molecule used to transport hydrogen ions and electrons to the Electron transport chain.
      • ALL organisms on the planet do Glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs without the presence of oxygen.
  • 13.  
  • 14. II. A erobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • If oxygen is present, the next step is the Kreb’s cycle which takes place in the inner spaces of the mitochondria.
      • Pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle . It proceeds through the cycle and returns back to the starting point.
      • The end products of the Kreb’s cycle are 1 ATP, 1FADH 2 , and 3 NADH. However, there are 2 pyruvic acids (from glycolysis) therefore the cycle runs TWICE so the true end products for molecule of glucose is 2 ATP, 2 FADH 2 , and 6 NADH.
      • FADH 2 is a also a carrier molecule.
  • 15.  
  • 16. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • The last stage of cellular respiration is the Electron Transport Chain .
      • The NADH and FADH 2 are used
      • This causes a concentration gradient to form along the inner mitochondria membrane.
      • ATP synthase is the enzyme/protein channel that the H + ions pass through to form ATP.
      • The end product of Cellular respiration is 36 ATP
  • 17.  
  • 18. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • The overall summary equation for cellular respiration is:
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP
    • Glucose + oxygen  carbon +water+energy
    • dioxide
  • 19.  
  • 20. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • After glycolysis, if there is no oxygen present, some cells can perform anaerobic respiration. (ana=no; aerobic=air)
  • 21. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    • All the reactions take place in the cytoplasm.
      • Only 2 ATP are made from glycolysis and no more.
      • Lactic acid fermination
        • Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.
        • Muscle cells do this when they run out of oxygen. Results in muscle soreness because the lactic acid is poisonous.
  • 22. II. Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
      • Alcoholic fermentation
        • Pyruvic acid is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
        • Makes bread wise
        • Responsible for beer and wine production
  • 23. III. Photosynthesis
    • The sun is the primary source of energy for most all ecosystems.
    • All organisms on the planet can be divided into either autotrophs (organisms like plants that make their own food by converting sunlight energy into carbohydrates) or heterotrophs (organisms like animals that get their energy from consuming foods.)
  • 24. III. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs use sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into simple sugar and oxygen.
  • 25. III. Photosynthesis
    • The overall summary equation for photosynthesis is:
    • 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • carbon+water+energy  Glucose+oxygen
    • dioxide
  • 26. III. Photosynthesis
    • The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into the light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions.
  • 27. Structure of the Chloroplast
  • 28. III. Photosynthesis
    • The Light Dependent Reactions (AKA The photosystems)
      • Can only occur in the presence of light
      • Chlorophyll is the green pigment found in plants.
      • Chlorophyll absorbes light and the energy goes through a series of reactions that convert ADP to ATP
      • 2 Water molecules are split to form 4H+ (hydrogen ions) and the O2 (oxygen gas)
      • The oxygen gas given off by plants com from the plant splitting of water.
      • NADPH is also produced during the dependent reactions
  • 29.  
  • 30. III. Photosynthesis
    • Light Independent Reactions (AKA The Calvin Cycle or the Dark reactions)
      • Light is not needed
      • CO2 gas is taken in and used during the Calvin cycle.
      • CO2 and hydrogen ions (from NAHPD) combine to form simple sugars.
      • Simple sugars combine to form complex carbs like starch and cellulose.
  • 31.  
  • 32. III. Photosynthesis
    • C3 plants use the process described above.
    • C4 plants (tropical plants) store extra carbon dioxide in 4 carbon compounds for when times it too hot for the stomata to open (stomata – leaf pores).
    • CAM plants (succulents) store extra carbon dioxide in Crassulacian acid for the day time when it’s too hot to open a stomata.
  • 33. IV. Cellular Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
    • The 2 processes are basically the reverse of each other.
    • Photosynthesis is a building process and cellular respiration is a tearing down process.
  • 34.  
  • 35. IV. Cellular Respiration vs. Photosynthesis   Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Takes place in- All cells Cells with chlorophyll Occurs when- All of the time In the presence of light What goes in- Carbohydrates and oxygen Carbon dioxide and water What comes out- Carbon dioxide and water Carbohydrates and oxygen Energy source- Chemical bonds Light Result- Energy is stored as ATP Energy is stored as carbohydrates Processes -Glycolysis -Krebs Cycle -Electron Transport Chain -Light Dependent Reactions -Light Independent Reactions