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Energy in the cell photosynthesis - cellular respiration

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Energy in the cell photosynthesis - cellular respiration

  1. 1. Energy in a Cell
  2. 2. <ul><li>Cells need energy to do a variety of work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making new molecules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building membranes and organelles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving molecules in and out of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Food is broken down to a form the cell can use. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra energy is stored in an ATP molecule, a nucleotide. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>ATP – adenosine triphosphate is a molecule made up of an adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups. </li></ul>Adenine Ribose phosphate groups
  5. 5. <ul><li>Energy is stored in the bond between the second and third phosphate group. </li></ul><ul><li>When the bond is broken, energy is released and ADP is formed. </li></ul>Adenine Ribose
  6. 6. <ul><li>Within a cell, formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, storing energy each time. </li></ul><ul><li>As the cell uses energy, ATP breaks down repeatedly to release energy and form ADP and phosphate. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Cells make energy in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis – takes place in the chloroplasts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration – takes place in the mitochondria. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Autotrophs make their own food by trapping light energy and converting it to chemical energy (carbohydrates). </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Using light from the sun, plants combine water and carbon dioxide to make sugar . </li></ul><ul><li>General Equation: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants Products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2 Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Light Reactions – Light energy is converted to chemical energy to split hydrogen from water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the grana of the chloroplasts (the coin-like stacks of sacs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproducts are oxygen, NADPH, and ATP. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Calvin Cycle – ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used along with CO 2 to form a simple sugar (glucose). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplasts (the liquid filling). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproducts are C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose), ADP, and NADP + (which return to the light reactions). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sunlight NADP + ADP NADPH CO 2 H 2 O O 2 CHLOROPLAST Calvin cycle ATP Glucose Photosystem I & II
  14. 14. <ul><li>Some autotrophs can convert inorganic substances to energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are adapted to live in conditions where there is no oxygen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake sediments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive tracts of mammals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep in the ocean. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The process of breaking down food molecules to release energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic – requires oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic – requires an absence of oxygen. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Two types of anaerobic respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation – occurs when bacteria break down plants (vegetables and fruit) and release alcohol or vinegar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation – occurs in muscles – a buildup of lactic acid causes soreness. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Glycolysis – glucose is split to form pyruvate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is a byproduct. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Krebs Cycle – pyruvate is used to build citric acid (a carbon compound), which is broken down to release ATP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the cristae (the folded membrane in the mitochondrion). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is released, and NADH carries hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Electron Transport Chain – hydrogen ions are stripped of their energy, and large amounts of ATP are formed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The used ions are combined with oxygen to form H 2 O. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. MITOCHONDRION CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP NADH Heat Electron Transport System ATP NAD + citric acid cycle Pyruvate Glucose ATP
  22. 23. Sunlight Photo- System I Photo- system II NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Calvin CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP ATP NAD + NADH Electron Transport System Cycle Krebs Heat CHLOROPLAST MITOCHONDRION Glucose Pyruvate Cycle ATP Glycolysis
  23. 24. Sunlight Photo- System I Photo- system II NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Cycle Calvin CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP ATP NAD + NADH Electron Transport System Cycle Krebs Heat CHLOROPLAST MITOCHONDRION Glucose ATP Pyruvate Glycolysis

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