Unit 4 Chemical Energy And Atp


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Unit 4 Chemical Energy And Atp

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.<br />
  2. 2. Starch molecule<br />Glucose molecule<br />The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. <br />Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.<br />
  3. 3. phosphate removed<br />ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.<br /><ul><li>Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.
  4. 4. ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.</li></li></ul><li>triphosphate<br />adenosine<br />tri=3<br />adenosine<br />diphosphate<br />di=2<br />Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.<br />Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.<br /><ul><li>not stored in large amounts
  5. 5. up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule</li></li></ul><li>Fats store the most energy.<br /><ul><li>80 percent of the energy in your body
  6. 6. about 146 ATP from a triglyceride
  7. 7. Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.
  8. 8. amino acids not usually needed for energy
  9. 9. about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate</li></li></ul><li>A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy.<br />Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight.<br />In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules.<br />similar to photosynthesis<br />uses chemical energy instead of light energy<br />
  10. 10. KEY CONCEPTThe overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy.<br />
  11. 11. Photosynthetic organisms are producers.<br />Producers make their own source of chemical energy.<br />Plants use photosynthesis and are producers.<br />Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.<br />
  12. 12. chloroplast<br />leaf cell<br />leaf<br />Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy.<br /><ul><li> In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts.</li></li></ul><li>grana (thylakoids)<br />chloroplast<br />stroma<br />Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts.<br />Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.<br />grana (thylakoids)<br />stroma<br />
  13. 13. The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight.<br /><ul><li>take place in thylakoids
  14. 14. water and sunlight are needed
  15. 15. chlorophyll absorbs energy
  16. 16. energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions
  17. 17. oxygen is released</li></li></ul><li>The light-independent reactions make sugars.<br /><ul><li>take place in stroma
  18. 18. needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere
  19. 19. use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions</li></li></ul><li>granum (stack of thylakoids)<br />chloroplast<br />1<br />sunlight<br />6H2O<br />6O2<br />2<br />energy<br />thylakoid<br />stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)<br />6CO2<br />1 six-carbon sugar<br />C6H12O6<br />4<br />3<br />The equation for the overall process is:<br /> 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2<br />
  20. 20. KEY CONCEPT Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions.<br />
  21. 21. The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy.<br />The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.<br />
  22. 22. Photosystem II captures and transfers energy.<br /><ul><li>chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight
  23. 23. energized electrons enter electron transport chain
  24. 24. water molecules are split
  25. 25. oxygen is released as waste
  26. 26. hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane</li></li></ul><li>Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules.<br /><ul><li>chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight
  27. 27. energized electrons are used to make NADPH
  28. 28. NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions</li></li></ul><li>The light-dependent reactions produce ATP.<br /><ul><li>hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membrane
  29. 29. ATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP</li></li></ul><li>The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars.<br />Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO2 molecules.<br />
  30. 30. A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.<br /><ul><li>carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle
  31. 31. energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged
  32. 32. a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.</li></ul>two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar<br /><ul><li> remaining molecules stay in the cycle</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.<br />
  33. 33. mitochondrion<br />animal cell<br />Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.<br />Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.<br />Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.<br />
  34. 34. Glycolysis must take place first.<br /><ul><li>anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)
  35. 35. takes place in cytoplasm
  36. 36. splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules
  37. 37. produces two ATP molecules</li></li></ul><li>ATP<br />1<br />mitochondrion<br />matrix (area enclosed<br />by inner membrane)<br />and<br />6CO<br /> 2<br />energy<br />2<br />3<br />energy from glycolysis<br />ATP<br />inner membrane<br />and<br />and<br />6H O<br />2<br />6O<br /> 2<br />4<br />Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.<br />The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.<br />takes place inmitochondrial matrix<br />breaks down three-carbonmolecules from glycolysis<br />Krebs Cycle<br /><ul><li>makes a small amount of ATP
  38. 38. releases carbon dioxide
  39. 39. transfers energy-carrying molecules</li></li></ul><li>ATP<br />1<br />mitochondrion<br />matrix (area enclosed<br />by inner membrane)<br />and<br />6CO<br /> 2<br />energy<br />2<br />3<br />Electron Transport<br />energy from glycolysis<br />ATP<br />inner membrane<br />and<br />and<br />6H O<br />2<br />6O<br /> 2<br />4<br /><ul><li>The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.
  40. 40. takes place in inner membrane
  41. 41. energy transferred to electron transport chain
  42. 42. oxygen enters process
  43. 43. ATP produced
  44. 44. water released as awaste product</li></li></ul><li>The equation for the overall process is:<br /> C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O<br /><ul><li>The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Cellular respiration is an aerobic process with two main stages.<br />
  45. 45. Glycolysis is needed for cellular respiration.<br />The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available.<br />two ATP molecules are used to split glucose<br />four ATP molecules are produced<br /><ul><li>two molecules of NADH produced
  46. 46. two molecules of pyruvate produced</li></li></ul><li>The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.<br />Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.<br />carbon dioxide released<br />NADH produced<br />coenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule<br />
  47. 47. The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.<br />
  48. 48. <ul><li>The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.</li></ul>NADH and FADH2 are made<br /><ul><li>intermediate molecule withCoA enters Krebs cycle
  49. 49. citric acid(six-carbon molecule)is formed
  50. 50. citric acid is broken down,carbon dioxide is released,and NADH is made
  51. 51. five-carbon molecule is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, NADH and ATP are made
  52. 52. four-carbon molecule is rearranged</li></li></ul><li>The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.<br />The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.<br />high-energy electrons enter electron transport chain<br />energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membrane<br />hydrogen ionsflow through achannel in themembrane<br />
  53. 53. The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.<br /><ul><li>The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.</li></ul>The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to38 molecules of ATP.<br /><ul><li>ATP synthase produces ATP
  54. 54. oxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ions
  55. 55. water is released as a waste product</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.<br />
  56. 56. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue.<br /><ul><li>Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.</li></ul>Fermentation is an anaerobic process.<br />occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration<br />does not produce ATP<br />
  57. 57. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.<br /><ul><li>NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
  58. 58. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.
  59. 59. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules
  60. 60. pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation
  61. 61. energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid
  62. 62. NADH is changed back into NAD+</li></li></ul><li>Fermentation and its products are important in several ways.<br />Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation.<br />glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentation<br /><ul><li>energy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxide
  63. 63. NADH is changed back into NAD+
  64. 64. NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis</li></li></ul><li>Fermentation is used in food production.<br /><ul><li>yogurt
  65. 65. cheese
  66. 66. bread</li>