BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE~photosynthesis and cellular respiration


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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE~photosynthesis and cellular respiration

  2. 2. <ul><li>Came from the word “photo” which means light and “synthesis” which means the building of a complex substance from simpler substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which green plants, some bacteria and some protist use solar energy to produce sugar (carbohydrate) </li></ul>CO2 +H2O C6H12O6 + O2 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Photosynthetic Chemical Reaction
  3. 3. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Takes place only in the presence of chlorophyll . </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are the organs of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>The epidermis, particularly the lower one, contains openings called stomata that allow gases to move into and out of the leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>The body of a leaf is composed of mesophyll tissue , which contain many chloroplasts and carry on most of the photosynthesis for the plant. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Light Reaction Is absorbed by Chlorophyll a (energy carrier) Becomes energized chlorophyll that supplies energy to Split H 2 O and Add P 2H O 2 ADP (energy carrier) Trapped by NADP released forming ATP- stores energy (H acceptor) Forming NADPH2 For use in the dark reaction
  5. 7. Dark Reaction CO2 Combines with RDP, a 5-C sugar in the chloroplast(CO2 acceptor) To form a very unstable 6-C sugar This splits quickly and forms 2 PGA, a 3-C compound Combines with 2H supplied by NADPH2 from the light reaction (energy supplied by conversion of ATP to ADP) forms PGAL H2O Can be used as nutrient or converted to RDP Glucose Used to combine with CO2 and By combining 2 molecules of PGAL and substituting H for a phosphate
  6. 8. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>A cell releases the energy of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is transferred to the ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the burning of organic material </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of food to ATP inside each cell of the body </li></ul>
  7. 9. Cellular Respiration: Chemical Reaction <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy </li></ul>
  8. 10. Cellular Respiration
  9. 11. Cellular Respiration: Three Reactions <ul><li>1. Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place in the cytosol and not in the organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require the use of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is converted to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kreb’s cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the use of oxygen and releases carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>3. ATP synthesis/ ETC </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the use of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>These reactions pump H+ across the membrane creating a gradient </li></ul><ul><li>As H+ enters the matrix, ATP is formed. </li></ul>
  10. 12. ATP Synthesis/ Electron Transport Chain
  11. 13. Energy Produced in Cellular Respiration <ul><li>In Glycolysis = 2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>In Krebs Cycle = 2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>In ATP synthesis/ ETC = 34 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 38 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>From 38 ATP, the 2 ATP are used to transport products of glycolysis into the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: 36 ATP are produced for the whole process </li></ul>
  12. 14. Types of Respiration <ul><li>1. Aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage which requires molecular oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Water and carbon dioxide are given off and energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anaerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs outside mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms depend on glycolysis to generate ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Product of this reaction is ethanol for plants and lactic acid for animals. </li></ul><ul><li>This alcohol is formed whenever fruits are processed into wine through fermentation. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Comparison of Photosynthesis and Respiration <ul><li>1. Occurs only in the chlorophyll-bearing cells of plant. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Needs the presence of light </li></ul><ul><li>3. Water and Carbon dioxide are used. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Oxygen is given off as a waste product. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Food is built or synthesized. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The weight of the plant is increased </li></ul><ul><li>7. Energy is stored. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Occurs in every living plant and animal cell. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Occurs at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Water and Carbon dioxide are given off as waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Oxygen is used in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Food is destroyed to release its energy. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The weight of the plant is decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Energy is released. </li></ul>