Millennium Development Goals


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Millennium Development Goals

  1. 1. Goals G1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty & Hunger Presented by : Phileman Ochan Owiti IDNO. 013/06 Dept. Development management Hawassa University Junuary 2014
  2. 2. Millennium Development Goals “Our world is one in which 1.5 billion people live in extreme poverty, 9 million children die every year, and 75 million more are denied primary education. Our world is still plighted by disease like HIV/AIDS that together kill 2 million people every year, a world where women are in which often relegated to second rank and one in which the conditions of life for future generations are being undermine” UN Millennium Development Goals: A challenge for Today’s youth)
  3. 3. Eight MDGS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and women empowerment Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental stability Create global partnership for development
  4. 4. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger . To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger is one of the most essential components of MDGs in the declaration adopted by 186 heads of governments at the millennium summit of the United Nations in September 2000. As a part of global and national initiative/ program Ethiopia’s government together with her development partners has been putting development with aim of achieving a broad based, sustained economic growth and reducing the dept and extent of chronic poverty in country’s policy agenda.
  5. 5. CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF POVERTY (ETHIOPIA) A family, and every individual in it, is considered poor when the family's total income is less than $1.25 a day. In Ethiopia poverty means high number of infant deaths, hunger; lack of shelter, lack access to formal education ; begging; involve in commercial sex (prostitute); unemployment, etc.
  6. 6. Ethiopia as ing country shares common characteristics of ing countries Low Level of Living Low productivity High Rate of Population Growth and Dependency Burden Substantial Dependence on Agriculture Production Prevalence of Imperfect Markets and Incomplete Information Dependence and Vulnerability in International Relation
  7. 7. Poor Utilization of the Natural Resources Vicious circle/traps of low saving, low capital formation and low investment Low level of Industrialization and Lack of Urbanity/Urbanism Fiscal and Monetary un progressiveness Backwash effect of international Trade Development of infrastructure Facilities not being Commensurate with the requirements of the direct productive activities of the material sector. Waste of human Resources/Manpower
  8. 8. CAUSE OF POVERTY IN ETHIOPIA 1. Drought: Ethiopia agriculture is rain feed agriculture while 85% popun dependent on it 2. Flood 3. fluctuation in the amount and distribution of rainfall 4. Small scale agriculture with primitive technology 5. Undeveloped technology & communication system 6. Small number workers & more dependent unemployment etc.
  9. 9. IMPACT OF POVERTY Health Hunger Under nutrition during pregnancy Limited health care access 2. Productivity Delayed cognitive development and under achievement Limited access to leisure 3. Physical Environment Home: water leaking, overcrowding, unclean, Neighborhood: safely concern, lack of community support and desirable role model 1.
  10. 10. IMPACT cont……………….. 4. Emotional Well- Being Increased stress Low self esteem 5. Family Interaction •Inconsistent, unresponsive parenting •Marital conflict over money, increased sibling responsibility
  11. 11. THE PROGRESS OF ETHIOPIA TO ACHIEVE THE ERADICATION OF EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER According to Millennium Development Goals Report 2012:- the world has met some important targets— ahead of the deadline. 1. Extreme poverty is falling in every region The proportion of people living on less than $1.25 a day fell from 47 % in 1990 to 24 % in 2008—a reduction from over 2 billion to less than 1.4 billion.
  12. 12. 2. The world has met the target of halving the proportion of people without access to improved sources of water Proportion of people using an improved water source rising from 76 per cent in 1990 to 89 per cent in 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, over two billion people gained access to improved drinking water sources, such as piped supplies and protected wells.
  13. 13. According to an Interim Report on Poverty Analysis Study (2010/11), The ratio of poor people in Ethiopia is estimated to be 29.6% in 2010/11. In 2010/11, the proportion of the population below the poverty line stood at 30.4% in rural areas, and 25.7% in urban areas. Between 2004/05 and 2010/11, income inequality measured by Gini -Coefficient has shown a small decline from 0.3 in 2004/05 to 0.298 in 2010/11.
  14. 14. Development Plans of Ethiopia 1. 2. 3. 4. ADLI PRSP/SDPRP 2002-2004 PASDEP I 2005/6-2009/10 five years plan GTP 2010/11-2014/15
  15. 15. Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) long term Strategy •ADLI is a strategy in which agriculture and industry are brought into a single framework, wherein the development of agriculture is viewed as an important vehicle for industrialization by providing raw material, a market base, surplus labor and capital accumulation.
  16. 16. PASDEP I 2005/6-2009/10 five years plan Eight (8) Pillars of PASDEP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Building All-inclusive Implementation Capacity; . Massive Push to Accelerate Growth; Addressing the Population Challenge; Unleashing the Potentials of Ethiopian Women Strengthen the Infrastructure Backbone of the Country; 6. Improve Human Development; 7. Managing Risks; 8. Creating Jobs:
  17. 17. GTP (2010/11-2014/15) The main agenda of the plan is to sustain broad-based, rapid and equitable economic growth to reduce and ultimately eradicate poverty.
  18. 18. Objectives of the GTP 1. Maintain at least an average real GDP growth rate of 11% and attain MDGs 2. Expand and ensure the qualities of education and health services and achieve MDGs in the social sector 3. Establish suitable conditions for sustainable nation building through the creation of stable democratic and developmental state 4. Ensure the sustainability of growth by realizing all the above objectives within stable macroeconomic framework
  19. 19. According to Ethiopia: 2010 Millennium Development Goals Report Ethiopia achieved pro poor economic growth by spending more than 60 percent of government expenditure on poverty oriented sectors such as agriculture, education, health, water, and roads development during last decade
  20. 20. During this period The hydroelectric power generation capacity has increased the coverage to 41% in 2009/10 from 16% in 2004/05; Telecommunication service coverage has reached 50% within a 5 km radius. The expansion of road network has increased the road density from 29km/1000 km2 in 2000/01 to 44.5km/1000km2 in 2009/10. The aver-age time taken to reach all weather roads has also been reduced to 3.7 hours in 2009/10 from about 7 hours in early 2000. The population living below the poverty line has declined to 29% as of 2009/10.
  21. 21. Challenges To Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger in Ethiopia 1. Climate change: Climate change extreme affect the Ethiopian economy and social being. Agriculture, primarily rain-fed and highly sensitive to fluctuations in rainfall, forms the basis of the economy providing approximately 46% of GDP and jobs for 80% of the working population.  Chronic food insecurity affects 10% of the population and even in average rainfall years these households cannot meet their food needs and they rely partly on food assistance. Droughts can result in sharp reductions in agricultural output and related productive activity and employment, with multiplier effects on the monetary economy. Floods regularly cause crop and infrastructure damage and widespread suffering and hardship, E.g. in 2010 in Afar & Amhara regions 10,000 people being displaced and over 10,000 ha of cropland flooded.
  22. 22. Climate change……. Damage transportation infrastructure Soil erosion Drought Flood etc 2.Global prices of export and import change Due to the deteriorating trade of coffee on the world market coffee in total export revenues has declined significantly from above 70 percent of export earnings to roughly 45 percent in 2003 Rise in food and oil prices which have affected the effort the country to reduce poverty.
  23. 23. 3. Increase Urban Population & Poverty CONCLUSION From the above, I concluded here, that even though, there are so many challenges to eradicate chronic poverty and hunger in the country, Ethiopia made un deniable progress to bring sustain broad-based, rapid and equitable economic growth to reduce and ultimately eradicate poverty. In another word, Ethiopia on right truck to meet MDGS in 2015
  24. 24. “the most killer disease in Africa neither HIV/AIDS nor Malaria, it is poverty the most killer”. MELES ZENAWI
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