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Sustainable Development, Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Hezri Adnan)

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Sustainable Development, Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Hezri Adnan)

  1. 1. Sustainable Development, MDGs, and SDGs Hezri Adnan, Ph.D Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia Pro.SPER.Net-AKEPT-UMS-UCTS Training, 24 August 2015, Palace Hotel, Kota Kinabalu.
  2. 2. Outline of Talk Sustainability as Alternative Model Rethinking Development What is MDG? What is SDG? Example Why a Country Like Malaysia Needs a Sustainability Reform Agenda Potential Contributions from Academics
  4. 4. Growth of the World Economy 1950 2010 2050 Our economy is geared, above all, to achieving growth. - Development? - Prosperity? - Progress?
  5. 5. The meaning of development changes with time  Colonial exploitation → Rostow’s stages of growth → dependency school → trickle-down development with equity → neoliberalism  Transition/shift – hunter-gatherer society → agrarian society →industrial society →sustainable society(?) ANTHROPOCENE Since 1800 HOLOCENE Up to 1800 (for 11,700 years)
  6. 6. 3% (1800) 70% (2050) 45% (2000) 30% (1950) 15% (1900) Shift to an Urbanised World (UN DESA, 2012) 50% of which are yet to be built
  7. 7. NOAA The Stages of the Anthropocene Source: Steffen, Crutzen & McNeill, 2006 Pre-Anthropocene events: Fire-stick farming, megafauna extinctions, early forest clearing Anthropocene Stage 1 (ca. 1800 - 1945). Internal combusion engine, fossil fuel energy, science & technology Anthropocene Stage 2 (1945 - 2010 or 2020). The Great Acceleration, new institutions and vast global networks Anthropocene Stage 3 (2010 or 2020 - ?). Business-as-usual,geo- engineering, or the Great Transition? Stage 1 Stage 2
  8. 8. …planetary change indicators Approximately 60% (15 out of 24) of the ecosystem services evaluated in this assessment (including 70% of regulating and cultural services) are being degraded or used unsustainably. There is increasing evidence that human activities are affecting Earth System functioning to a degree that threatens the resilience of the Earth System Source:Rockstrometal2009 Source:MEA2005 Planetary Boundaries for Safe Operating Space
  9. 9. Systemic Issues Basic Needs AND Environment
  10. 10. Systemic Problems Production Systems AND Consumption Patterns
  11. 11. SUSTAINABILITY AS AN ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT MODEL 2 – The Age of Sustainable Development
  12. 12. What is sustainable development? The Brundtland/WCED definition  “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” The sustainability model is a challenge to conventional forms of development  seeks to reconcile the ecological, social and economic dimensions of development, now and into the future  acknowledges biophysical limits to growth and prizes the preservation of ecosystem services  agenda of social justice within and across current and future generations
  13. 13. Environment VS Sustainability Problems • 13
  14. 14. Everything? Nothing? Something? Four constituent issues of sustainability ? Criticism…
  15. 15. 1. The predicament of complexity for quantitative analysis: how to account for food, energy and water METRIC....The amount of controls and commands needed by a pilot
  16. 16. Would you fly on this airplane? Enter Indicators of development…
  17. 17. THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS 3 – A United Nations Development Agenda
  18. 18. Origins of MDGs  In 2001, group of expert in UN Secretariat selected 18 targets from Sept 2000 Millennium Declaration and grouped them into 8 goals  Objective – to reshape UN Development Agenda  Accepted by all Heads of State at Millennium Summit  The 8 goals refocused UN Development Agenda around poverty reduction and other ‘social goals’  BUT… lowering ambition of Declaration and existing goals from UN mega- conferences in the 1990s
  19. 19. Strengths Weaknesses Framework integrating various dimensions of human development Lack of consultation has limited G77 national ownership due to perception of donor agenda Simple, transparent, and easy- to-communicate Excluded some important issues in Millennium Declaration and elsewhere Provided bases for converging advocacy Inadequate incorporation of other issues e.g. climate change & econ development Later recognised special needs of Africa, LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS Limited consideration of enablers of development Strengths and Weaknesses of MDGs Source: Jomo KS, 2015
  20. 20. MDG Evaluation: Some Progress  By 2015, number and proportion of poor had fallen in every region, including SS Africa. However China alone accounts for much of world poverty reduction  Significant progress in gender parity in primary education  The likelihood of child dying before age 5 has been nearly cut in half over last 2 decades  The target of halving proportion of people who lack access to improved sources of water already met in 2010  Remarkable gains in fight againts malaria and TB  Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected people has been increasing dramatically Source: Jomo KS, 2015
  21. 21. MDG Evaluation: Some Gaps  Hunger target of MDG1c missed by small margin  Globally, maternal mortality ratio dropped by 45% between 1990 and 2013, not 75%  Over ¼ of world population gained improved sanitation since 1990, yet almost 1 billion still openly defecate  Global CO2 emissions accelerating; in 2011 almost 50% above 1990 level  Only 28% reduction of extreme poverty in SS Africa, not halved  West Asians gained reversed; poverty rate increased in 2011-2015 Source: Jomo KS, 2015
  22. 22. Sustainable Development Goals From MDGs (2000-2015) to SDGs, changing the world in 17 steps (2016-2030) Ban Ki-Moon clustered SDGs into six “essential elements”: dignity, prosperity, justice, partnership, planet, people.
  23. 23. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 4 – Post 2015 Development Agenda
  24. 24. Origins of SDGs  The outcome document of the 2010 MDG Summit requested the Secretary- General to initiate thinking on the global development agenda beyond 2015.  At Rio+20 conference in 2012, member states decided to elaborate new post-2015 sustainable development framework
  25. 25. Origins of SDGs – related processes (1) UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda • Established by the UN Secretary-General in January 2012, the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda assembles more than 60 UN agencies and international organizations. • Co-chaired by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme the Task Team supports the process by providing analytical thinking and substantial inputs. • The Task Team published its first report titled Realizing the Future We Want for All in June 2012. The report outlined the vision of the United Nations system on the global development agenda beyond 2015. The Task Team is also engaged in various work streams.
  26. 26. High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda • In July 2012 the UN Secretary-General launched his High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Co-chaired by the Presidents of Indonesia and Liberia and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom • In May 2013 the Panel published its report with its vision and recommendations on a global development agenda beyond 2015. Origins of SDGs – related processes (2)
  27. 27. National Consultations • So far, the UN Country teams are supporting 88 countries to convene national consultations on the post 2015 development agenda. These are forums to exchange ideas for a shared vision of "The World We Want", in an open process tailored to country contexts. The national consultations are organized by UN Country Teams, under the leadership of the UN Resident Coordinator, and are working with a wide range of stakeholders including governments, civil society, the private sector, media, universities and think tanks. • A summary of the consultations so far can be found in the A Million Voices Report. Origins of SDGs – related processes (3)
  28. 28. Sustainable Development Solutions Network • The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), led by Jeffrey Sachs, is a global, independent network of research centres, universities and technical institutions that works with stakeholders including business, civil society, UN agencies and other international organizations. • It is mandated to provide technical support to establish and implement the SDGs • As a first step, the network SDSN established 12 global expert groups to support global problem solving in ten critical areas of sustainable development, produced a report titled “An action agenda for Sustainable Development”, and an indicator report to support the SDGs • SDSN also provides technical support to the High- level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Origins of SDGs – related processes
  29. 29. • The number of officially mandated processes aiming to influence the Post 2015 agenda is astounding • Started with High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, UN SDSN, UN Global Compact, Committee on Sustainable Development Financing, SDSN, HLPF and agencies within the UN System convening their own internal process, e.g. UNDP, UNEP, UNRISD— not to mention all of the CSO mobilizations around the process • Reality is despite all of these initiatives the UN General Assembly will agree the Post 2015 SD Framework • To date, most important process is the Open Working Group Origins of SDGs – related processes (4)
  30. 30. Open Working Group • A 30-member Open Working Group of the General Assembly was mandated by the Rio+20 Outcome document to prepare a proposal on SDGs for consideration by the Assembly at its 68th session (Sept. 2013 – Sept. 2014). • Two stage deliberations began in March of 2013 and concluded with a report to UNGA in September 2014 – 1st stage (March 2013-February 2014) 8 thematic sessions to table different issues: – 2nd Stage (March 2014-September 2014) “negotiations” on set of SDG recommendations • Resulted in 17 Goals and 169 targets for 2016 to 2030 Origins of SDGs – related processes (5)
  31. 31. 32 Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development 17 Sustainable Development Goals
  32. 32. MDGs SDGs Mainly for developing countries Universal – for ALL countries 8 siloed goals for development 17 goals, 169 targets, integrating 3 dimensions of SD From UN Secretariat Negotiated by Member States with stronger country ownership Means of Implementation (MoI), monitoring and follow-up not defined in advance MoI inter-governmentally negotiated, global architecture and monitoring system being shaped What’s new with SDGs Source: Jomo KS, 2015
  33. 33. The final lap of SDG negotiation Source: Jomo KS, 2015 • 14-15 Sept – intergovernmental negotiations on Post- 2015 Development Agenda leading to Post 2015 Heads of State Summit on 25-27 September in New York • Agreed Outcome Document, Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development finalised on 1 Aug 2015 includes – brief pre-amble noting that agenda plan of action for people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership – Draft Declaration, including sections on MoI, Follow-up and Review – SDGs and their targets with small changes – References to Addis Ababa Action Agenda in MoI section, noting inter-linkages between two processes
  34. 34. SDGs as a network of targets Source: Le Blanc, 2015 4DESAWORKINGPAPERNO.141 Figure 1 The SDGs as a net work of targets Source: Author’s elaboration. Note: targets labels are the numerals which refer to them in the report of the Open Working Group on SDGs.
  35. 35. SDGs as a network of targets Source: Le Blanc, 2015 TOWARDSINTEGRATIONATLAST? THESUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTGOALSASANETWORKOFTARGETS 7 Figure 3 Links among the goal 12 (SCP) and other goals Source: Author’s elaboration.
  36. 36. SEVEN REASONS FOR MALAYSIA, AN UPPER MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRY 5 - Why do We Need a Reform Agenda for Sustainable Development?
  37. 37. Economic, social and environmental convergence? 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 GDP(00'Million) &Povertyrates Year Poverty Rate GDP Per Capita Growth with Equity Balanced Development Performance DevelopmentLaissez-faire Ecological Footprint # 1 – Convergence of goals is still a practical challenge
  38. 38. Scarcity Distribution Unity Water shortages Haze Ecosystem Services Social Justice Urban Well-being Energy Security Widening Disparity Happiness Dengue Climate Change Population Growth The challenge of ‘new scarcity’ includes physical depletion of natural resources as well as their economic and political dimensions . This can disrupt economic growth and general well-being , reflecting similar trends internationally (references to phrases such as global resource scramble and the global resource nexus ). Malaysia now faces insufficient renewal production of and access to strategic resources such as water, energy and ecosystem services at the national level. Long term policies need to be drafted to ensure Malaysia builds a resilient economy. Inequality is looming large in Malaysia. While efforts towards inclusiveness have been highlighted prominently, less attention has been provided to natural resource distribution even less for intra-generational distribution. Previous efforts in poverty eradication utilising land policies are no longer possible. National unity is and has always been a priority for the nation. In a plural society, disunity threatens the well- being of the nation. With happiness levels and urban well- being reported to be decreasing, issues such as rising costs (natural resources), haze, water shortages, energy security threaten to boil into issues of unity (i.e. Lynas). Furthermore, resource dependent communities such (indigenous communities) have been affected due to unsustainable resource extraction and consumption causing unrest in certain localities. Cross-cutting RisksTriple ChallengeRationale # 2 – Cross-cutting risks threaten the nation’s survival
  39. 39. National Commodity Policy National Timber Industry Policy National Forestry Policy National Environmental Policy Malaysia National Policy in Biological Diversity National Policy on Climate Change National Science and Technology Policy 3 National Energy Policy National Petroleum Policy 1975 National Green Technology Policy New Energy Policy National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan National Urbanisation Policy National Housing Policy National Landscape Policy National Physical Plan National Solid Waste Management Policy New Economic Model New Economic Policy Vision 2020 National Automotive Policy Third National Agricultural Policy National Agro-Food Policy National Intellectual Property Policy Fair Trade Practices Policy National Consumer Policy National Cooperative Policy National Incorporation Policy National Privatization Policy National Development Policy National Industrialization Policy # 3 – Policy in abundance but we lack a common vision National Social Policy (2003, soon to be replaced by National Social Model) National Policy on Women (1989, revised in 2009) National Policy for Older Persons and Plan of Action (2011, revised from National Policy for the Elderly 1995) The National Policy in Reproductive Health and Social Education (PEKERTI) National Family Policy (2011) National Integration Policy National Child Protection Policy National Child Policy Disabled Persons Policy National Social Welfare Policy (1990) National Youth Development Policy National Education Policy National Cultural Policy National Nutrition Policy of Malaysia (2003) National Youth Development Policy (1985, revised in 1997) Minimum Wages Policy (2010) Economic EnvironmentSocial
  40. 40. # 4 – Institutional landscape is fragmented and under- resourced
  41. 41. # 5 – Balancing short-termism with long-term thinking is still challenge Recent years saw the return to long-term public policy design •Negotiating Our Future: Living Scenarios for Australia to 2050 - Australian Academy of Science •Roadmap for Moving to a Low-Carbon-Economy in 2050 - European Commission •Vision 2050: The New Agenda for Business - World Business Council for Sustainable Development •Asia 2050: Realising the Asian Century - Asian Development Bank Development planning is short-term •Focus on the immediate blinds us from seeing important slow-moving processes •Outline Perspective Plan is not practiced anymore •Vision 2020 in 1991 as an example of long range envisioning •SD Blueprint 2030? 2050? •Centennial Malaysia 2057? Long-term horizon is endemic in environment and resource management •Different time management regime for forest management (7-8 years for Acacia mangium; 30-50 years for meranti tembaga) •Floods management operates on 100 year cycle •Energy planning takes a decadal approach at least •Stern Report on ECC has the year 2200 as its time horizon
  42. 42. Individuals, politicians, officials, bankers, developers make decisions every day that collectively affect sustainability. Few of these notables know or care to know the meanings of sustainable development. Clarity of the concept is essential. # 6 Sustainability literacy is still low Aim for SD to be a universal principle of nation-building in Malaysia In a survey of 6,090 Malaysians in 2009, WWF Malaysia found that only 43 per cent of respondents were aware of the causes of annual events such as flash flooding and haze Also found that awareness of environmental problems did not necessarily translate directly into positive environmental behaviour
  43. 43. # 7 – SD solutions provide Malaysia a competitive edge and opportunities toward green growth • Malaysia to gain a first-mover-advantage by embracing green growth An increasing number of major industrial and service groups are diversifying and investing in cleantech and renewable energy sectors A rise in the number and size of stock market operations in these sectors, in the USA , Europe and developing countries Venture capital firms, ethical funds and pension funds increasingly invest in green business. Funding into Nexus solutions burgeoning The total world market for environmental products and services is currently estimated at around $1370 billion, and is set to double by 2020 Investments in RE systems grew between 2005 and 2010 to the global annual average of approximately 39%. The world capacity of solar PV rose by 72%, wind turbines rose by 27%
  44. 44. SOME THOUGHTS FOR THE FUTURE 6 – University Contribution to SDGs
  45. 45. Technology & SD - The IPAT identity
  46. 46. The age of green technology? 1785 1845 1900 1950 1990 2015 1st Wave 2nd Wave 3rd Wave 4th Wave 5th Wave 6th Wave Mechanisation Rail, Heavy Industry Automobile, Electricity Electronics Digital Networks, Biotechnology Green Technology Innovation
  47. 47. Green economy, post carbon futures? • “… to communicate and emphasise the importance of systemic transformations leading to a world in which we are no longer dependent on hydrocarbon fuels, and no longer emitting climate-changing levels of carbon into the atmosphere” World in Transition: A Social Contract for Sustainability (GACGC) A Roadmap for Moving to a Competitive Low Carbon Economy in 2050 (EC) Low Carbon Growth Plan for Australia (CWA) China's 12th Five-Year Plan & White Paper of Policies/Actions in Responding to Climate Change The Carbon Plan: Delivering our Low Carbon Future (UK) National Strategy for Green Growth (ROK) California's Clean Energy Future (GoCalifornia) Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth (India)
  48. 48. Publications on ‘low carbon’ 1990–2015 (Web of Science Database) Low carbon economy Low carbon technology Low carbon society The low-carbon agenda is underpinned by the idea of GHGs as a global pollutant But… Climate change is not the only planetary-scale environmental challenge Bringing Sustainability Back In
  49. 49. An Aside - Whose Future, Whose Knowledge? Publications in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Authorship Readership
  50. 50. What about sustainability transition? The Multi-level perspective
  51. 51. We are dealing with… Synoptic View Also… more emphasis on mainstreaming linkages or nexus of Environment- Societal-Economic pillars of development
  52. 52. Sustainability across disciplines Source: Kajikawa 2007 Emergence of sustainability science as a discipline or an area of study?
  53. 53. Disciplinary contributions Natural science • The extent of pollution load and biodiversity loss • How to restore a degraded ecosystem? • How to combine disciplines to address environ degradation? Social science & humanities • What is the origin & consequences of environmental degradation? • What are the core values for a sustainable society? • The role of political & cultural power in reversing degradation Policy & Econ., and Political Science • How international politics influence domestic policies? • The valuation of environmental services • How to design effective policy processes & draw lessons for developing countries
  54. 54. • International activities • National directions & activitiesStrategic/Practice • Understanding sustainability • Solutions for sustainabilityAcademic/Science • Working together • Engineering changeCommunity/People There are many sources of knowledge to inform sustainability transition
  55. 55. A variety of knowledge cultures Brown, VA. 2008. Leonardo’s Vision
  56. 56. Local community knowledge Hezri & Chan, 2012 A call for collective thinking and action?
  57. 57. Rethinking education… problem- and place-based education
  58. 58. Wiek, Withycombe & Redman. 2011. In Sustainability Science  Analyse the current problem constellation(s);  Create and craft sustainability visions;  Explore less desirable future scenarios that might become reality without interventions towards sustainability; and  Develop and test strategies to transition from the current state to sustainable states without getting deflected towards undesirable pathways (critical intervention points) Problem-solving framework
  59. 59. 5 key competencies in sustainability Wiek, Withycombe & Redman. 2011. In Sustainability Science 1 2 34 5
  60. 60. A more complex world requires multiple ways-of-knowing THANK YOU FOR LISTENING