2011 The Millennium Development Goals Report [United Nations]
The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011asdfUNITED NaTIONS
This report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-agency and Expert Group onMDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, inresponse to the wishes of the General assembly for periodic assessment of progress towards the MDGs. TheGroup comprises representatives of the international organizations whose activities include the preparation ofone or more of the series of statistical indicators that were identified as appropriate for monitoring progresstowards the MDGs, as reflected in the list below. a number of national statisticians and outside expert advisersalso contributed.INTERNaTIONaL LaBOUR ORGaNIZaTIONFOOD aND aGRICULTURE ORGaNIZaTION OF THE UNITED NaTIONSUNITED NaTIONS EDUCaTIONaL, SCIENTIFIC aND CULTURaL ORGaNIZaTION Cover InsideUNITED NaTIONS INDUSTRIaL DEVELOPMENT ORGaNIZaTIONWORLD HEaLTH ORGaNIZaTIONTHE WORLD BaNKINTERNaTIONaL MONETaRY FUNDINTERNaTIONaL TELECOMMUNICaTION UNIONECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR aFRICaECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPEECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LaTIN aMERICa aND THE CaRIBBEaNECONOMIC aND SOCIaL COMMISSION FOR aSIa aND THE PaCIFICECONOMIC aND SOCIaL COMMISSION FOR WESTERN aSIaJOINT UNITED NaTIONS PROGRaMME ON HIV/aIDSUNITED NaTIONS CHILDREN’S FUNDUNITED NaTIONS CONFERENCE ON TRaDE aND DEVELOPMENTUNITED NaTIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMENUNITED NaTIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRaMMEUNITED NaTIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRaMMEUNITED NaTIONS FRaMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMaTE CHaNGEUNITED NaTIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEESUNITED NaTIONS HUMaN SETTLEMENTS PROGRaMMEUNITED NaTIONS POPULaTION FUNDINTERNaTIONaL TRaDE CENTREINTER-PaRLIaMENTaRY UNIONORGaNISaTION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERaTION aND DEVELOPMENTWORLD TRaDE ORGaNIZaTION
The Millennium Development GoalsReport 2011 asdfUniTeD naTionsnew YoRk, 2011
Foreword | 3ForewordSince they were first adopted, the Millennium Disparities between urban and rural areas are alsoDevelopment Goals (MDGs) have raised awareness and pronounced and daunting. Achieving the goals willshaped a broad vision that remains the overarching require equitable and inclusive economic growth —framework for the development activities of the United growth that reaches everyone and that will enable allNations. people, especially the poor and marginalized, to benefit from economic opportunities.At the September 2010 MDG Summit, world leadersput forward an ambitious action plan — a roadmap We must also take more determined steps to protectoutlining what is needed to meet the goals by the the ecosystems that support economic growth andagreed deadline of 2015. The information presented sustain life on earth. Next year’s United Nationson the following pages demonstrates that this can be Conference on Sustainable Development — Rio + 20 —done if concrete steps are taken. is an opportunity to generate momentum in this direction, which is vital for achieving the MDGs.Already, the MDGs have helped to lift millions ofpeople out of poverty, save lives and ensure that Between now and 2015, we must make sure thatchildren attend school. They have reduced maternal promises made become promises kept. The people ofdeaths, expanded opportunities for women, increased the world are watching. Too many of them are anxious,access to clean water and freed many people from angry and hurting. They fear for their jobs, theirdeadly and debilitating disease. At the same time, families, their futures. World leaders must show notthe report shows that we still have a long way to go in only that they care, but that they have the courage andempowering women and girls, promoting sustainable conviction to act.development, and protecting the most vulnerable fromthe devastating effects of multiple crises, be theyconflicts, natural disasters or volatility in prices forfood and energy.Progress tends to bypass those who are lowest onthe economic ladder or are otherwise disadvantaged BAN Ki-moonbecause of their sex, age, disability or ethnicity. Secretary-General, United Nations
4 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011overviewLives have been saved or changed from malaria have been reduced by 20 per cent worldwide—for the better from nearly 985,000 in 2000 to 781,000 in 2009. This was accomplished through critical interventions, including the distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, which,More than 10 years have passed since world leaders in sub-Saharan Africa alone, are sufficient to cover 76 perestablished goals and targets to free humanity from extreme cent of the population at risk. The largest absolute dropspoverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease. The Millennium in malaria deaths were in Africa, where 11 countries haveDeclaration and the MDG framework for accountability reduced malaria cases and deaths by over 50 per cent.derived from it have inspired development efforts and helpedset global and national priorities and focus subsequent • Investments in preventing and treating HIVactions. While more work lies ahead, the world has cause are yielding resultsto celebrate, in part due to the continued economic growthof some developing countries and targeted interventions in New HIV infections are declining steadily, led by sub-Saharancritical areas. Increased funding from many sources has Africa. In 2009, an estimated 2.6 million people were newlytranslated into the expansion of programmes to deliver infected with HIV—a drop of 21 per cent since 1997, whenservices and resources to those most in need. Here are some new infections peaked. Thanks to increased funding andof the highlights: the expansion of major programmes, the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV or AIDS increased 13-• Poverty continues to decline in many countries fold from 2004 to 2009. By end-2009, 5.25 million people and regions were receiving such treatment in low- and middle-income countries—an increase of over 1.2 million people sinceDespite significant setbacks after the 2008-2009 economic December 2008. As a result, the number of AIDS-relateddownturn, exacerbated by the food and energy crisis, the deaths declined by 19 per cent over the same period.world is still on track to reach the poverty-reduction target.By 2015, it is now expected that the global poverty rate will • Effective strategies against tuberculosis are savingfall below 15 per cent, well under the 23 per cent target. This millions of livesglobal trend, however, mainly reflects rapid growth in EasternAsia, especially China. Between 1995 and 2009, a total of 41 million tuberculosis patients were successfully treated and up to 6 million lives• Some of the poorest countries have made the greatest were saved, due to effective international protocols for the strides in education treatment of tuberculosis. Worldwide, deaths attributed to the disease have fallen by more than one third since 1990.Burundi, Madagascar, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome andPrincipe, Togo and the United Republic of Tanzania have • Every region has made progress in improving accessachieved or are nearing the goal of universal primary to clean drinking watereducation. Considerable progress has also been madein Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, An estimated 1.1 billion people in urban areas and 723Mozambique and Niger, where net enrolment ratios in primary million people in rural areas gained access to an improvedschool increased by more than 25 percentage points from drinking water source over the period 1990-2008. Eastern1999 to 2009. With an 18 percentage point gain between Asia registered the largest gains in drinking water coverage—1999 and 2009, sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the from 69 per cent in 1990 to 86 per cent in 2008. Sub-best record of improvement. Saharan Africa nearly doubled the number of people using an improved drinking water source—from 252 million in 1990 to• Targeted interventions have succeeded in reducing 492 million in 2008. child mortalityThe number of deaths of children under the age of five Despite real progress, we are failing to reachdeclined from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009. the most vulnerableThis means that nearly 12,000 fewer children are dying eachday. Between 2000 and 2008, the combination of improved Alhough many countries have demonstrated that progressimmunization coverage and the opportunity for second-dose is possible, efforts need to be intensified. They must alsoimmunizations led to a 78 per cent drop in measles deaths target the hardest to reach: the poorest of the poor andworldwide. These averted deaths represent one quarter of the those disadvantaged because of their sex, age, ethnicity ordecline in mortality from all causes among children under disability. Disparities in progress between urban and ruralfive. areas remain daunting.• Increased funding and control efforts have cut deaths • The poorest children have made the slowest progress from malaria in terms of improved nutritionThrough the hard work of governments, international In 2009, nearly a quarter of children in the developingpartners, community health workers and civil society, deaths world were underweight, with the poorest children most
overview | 5affected. In Southern Asia, a shortage of quality food and is 1.8 times more likely to use an improved drinking waterpoor feeding practices, combined with inadequate sanitation, source than a person living in a rural area.has contributed to making underweight prevalence amongchildren the highest in the world. In that region, between Continued progress requires an active1995 and 2009, no meaningful improvement was seen commitment to peace, equity, equality andamong children in the poorest households, while underweightprevalence among children from the richest 20 per cent of sustainabilityhouseholds decreased by almost one third. Children livingin rural areas of developing regions are twice as likely to be At the 2010 High-level Plenary Meeting of the Generalunderweight as are their urban counterparts. Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals, world leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the MDGs and• Opportunities for full and productive employment remain called for intensified collective action and the expansion of particularly slim for women successful approaches. They acknowledged the challenges posed by multiple crises, increasing inequalities andWide gaps remain in women’s access to paid work in at persistent violent conflicts.least half of all regions. Following significant job losses in2008-2009, the growth in employment during the economic They called for action to ensure equal access by women andrecovery in 2010, especially in the developing world, girls to education, basic services, health care, economicwas lower for women than for men. Women employed in opportunities and decision-making at all levels, recognizingmanufacturing industries were especially hard hit. that achievement of the MDGs depends largely on women’s empowerment. World leaders also stressed that accelerated• Being poor, female or living in a conflict zone increases action on the goals requires economic growth that is the probability that a child will be out of school sustainable, inclusive and equitable—growth that enablesThe net enrolment ratio of children in primary school has only everyone to benefit from progress and share in economicgone up by 7 percentage points since 1999, reaching 89 per opportunities.cent in 2009. More recently, progress has actually slowed,dimming prospects for reaching the MDG target of universal Finally, further and faster movement towards achievementprimary education by 2015. Children from the poorest of the MDGs will require a rejuvenated global partnership,households, those living in rural areas and girls are the most expeditious delivery on commitments already made, and anlikely to be out of school. Worldwide, among children of agile transition to a more environmentally sustainable future.primary school age not enrolled in school, 42 per cent—28 million—live in poor countries affected by conflict.• Advances in sanitation often bypass the poor and those living in rural areasOver 2.6 billion people still lack access to flush toilets or Sha ZuKangother forms of improved sanitation. And where progress Under-Secretary-General for Economichas occurred, it has largely bypassed the poor. An analysis and Social Affairsof trends over the period 1995-2008 for three countriesin Southern Asia shows that improvements in sanitationdisproportionately benefited the better off, while sanitationcoverage for the poorest 40 per cent of households hardlyincreased. Although gaps in sanitation coverage betweenurban and rural areas are narrowing, rural populations remainat a distinct disadvantage in a number of regions.• Improving the lives of a growing number of urban poor remains a monumental challengeProgress in ameliorating slum conditions has not beensufficient to offset the growth of informal settlementsthroughout the developing world. In developing regions, thenumber of urban residents living in slum conditions is nowestimated at 828 million, compared to 657 million in 1990and 767 million in 2000. Redoubled efforts will be needed toimprove the lives of the urban poor in cities and metropolisesacross the developing world.• Progress has been uneven in improving access to safe drinking waterIn all regions, coverage in rural areas lags behind that ofcities and towns. In sub-Saharan Africa, an urban dweller
6 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011 TargeT Goal 1 Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day Eradicate extreme Sustained growth in developing countries, poverty and particularly in Asia, is keeping the world on hunger track to meet the poverty-reduction target Proportion of people living on less than $1.25 a day, 1990 and 2005 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa 58 51 Southern Asia 49 39 Southern Asia (excluding India) 45 31 Caribbean 29 26 Caucasus & Central Asia 6 19 South-Eastern Asia 39 19 Eastern Asia 60 16 Latin America 11 7 Western Asia 2 6 Northern Africa 5 3 Developing regions 45 27 0 20 40 60 80 1990 2005 2015 target Robust growth in the first half of the decade reduced the number of people in developing countries living on less than $1.25 a day from about 1.8 billion in 1990 to 1.4 billion in 2005. At the same time, the corresponding poverty rate dropped from 46 per cent to 27 per cent. The economic and financial crisis that began in the advanced countries of North America and Europe in 2008 sparked declines in commodity prices, trade and investment, resulting in slower growth globally.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger | 7Despite these declines, current trends suggest that themomentum of growth in the developing world remainsstrong enough to sustain the progress needed to reachthe global poverty-reduction target. Based on recentlyupdated projections from the World Bank, the overallpoverty rate is still expected to fall below 15 per centby 2015, indicating that the Millennium DevelopmentGoal (MDG) target can be met.The World Bank’s new poverty projections for 2015incorporate several changes: additional data fromover 60 new household surveys, updates of historicalconsumption per capita from national accounts, anda new forecast of growth in per capita consumption.The forecast therefore captures changes in incomedistribution in countries for which new survey dataare available, and assumes that inequality remainsunchanged in other countries. It also incorporatessome of the effects of the global economic crisis, suchas food and fuel price shocks. By 2015, the numberof people in developing countries living on less than$1.25 a day is projected to fall below 900 million.The fastest growth and sharpest reductions in povertycontinue to be found in Eastern Asia, particularly inChina, where the poverty rate is expected to fall tounder 5 per cent by 2015. India has also contributedto the large reduction in global poverty. In that country,poverty rates are projected to fall from 51 per centin 1990 to about 22 per cent in 2015. In Chinaand India combined, the number of people living inextreme poverty between 1990 and 2005 declinedby about 455 million, and an additional 320 millionpeople are expected to join their ranks by 2015.Projections for sub-Saharan Africa are slightly moreupbeat than previously estimated. Based on recenteconomic growth performance and forecasted trends,the extreme poverty rate in the region is expected tofall below 36 per cent.The task of monitoring progress on poverty reductionis beset by a lack of good quality surveys carriedout at regular intervals, delays in reporting surveyresults, and insufficient documentation of country-level analytical methods used. It is also hampered bydifficulties in accessing the underlying survey micro-data required to compute the poverty estimates. Thesegaps remain particularly problematic in sub-SaharanAfrica, where the data necessary to make comparisonsover the full range of MDGs are available in less thanhalf the countries. For example, between 2007 and2009, the countries that had collected, analysed anddisseminated survey data, represent only 20 per centof the region’s population.
8 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011 More than three years have passed since the onset TargeT of the fastest and deepest drop in global economic Achieve full and productive employment and activity since the Great Depression. While global decent work for all, including women and young economic growth is rebounding, the global labour people market is, in many respects, behaving as anticipated in the middle of the crisis: stubbornly elevatedEconomic recovery has failed to translate unemployment and slow employment generation in developed economies, coupled with widespreadinto employment opportunities deficits in decent work in even the fastest-growing developing countries.Employment-to-population ratio, 2000, 2009 and 2010preliminary estimates In the developed regions, the employment-to- population ratio dropped from 56.8 per cent in 2007Eastern Asia 74 to 55.4 per cent in 2009, with a further drop to 54.8 70 per cent in 2010. Clearly, many developed economies 70 are simply not generating sufficient employmentOceania opportunities to absorb growth in the working-age 66 population. Again, this reflects an ongoing lag between 66 economic recovery and a recovery in employment 66 in this region. This contrasts with many developingSouth-Eastern Asia regions, some of which saw an initial decline in the 67 employment-to-population ratio but where, with the 66 exception of the Caucasus and Central Asia and 66 Eastern Asia, the estimated employment-to-populationSub-Saharan Africa ratio in 2010 has changed little since 2007. 63 64 64Latin America & the Caribbean 58 61 61Caucasus & Central Asia 55 59 60Southern Asia 57 58 58Northern Africa 43 46 46Western Asia 45 44 43Developed regions 5 5.8 5 5.4 54.8Developing regions 63.2 62.7 62.70 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2000 2009 2010
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger | 9Progress in reducing vulnerable is characterized by informal working arrangements,employment stalled following the lack of adequate social protection, low pay and difficult working conditions.economic crisis On the basis of available data, it is estimated thatProportion of own-account and contributing family workers in the vulnerable employment rate remained roughly thetotal employment, 1999, 2008 and 2009 (Percentage) same between 2008 and 2009, both in developingOceania and developed regions. This compares with a steady 77 average decline in the years preceding the economic 78 and financial crisis. Increases in the vulnerable 78 employment rate were found in sub-Saharan AfricaSouthern Asia and Western Asia. 80 78 77Sub-Saharan Africa 80 75 76South-Eastern Asia 66 62 62Eastern Asia 61 53 51Caucasus & Central Asia 57 44 44Northern Africa 33 33 33Latin America & the Caribbean 36 32 32Western Asia 37 28 29Developed regions 11 10 10Developing regions 65 60 600 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1999 2008 2009In developing regions overall, the majority of workersare engaged in “vulnerable employment”, definedas the percentage of own-account and unpaid familyworkers in total employment. Vulnerable employment
10 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011Worldwide, one in five workers and their families are living in extreme povertyProportion of employed people living on less than $1.25 a day (Percentage) and number of working poor (Millions), 1999-2009Millions Percentage1000 35.0 Working poor Working poverty rate 800 30.0 Pre-crisis trend (2002-2007) 600 25.0 400 20.0 200 15.0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009A slowdown in progress against poverty is reflected of the working poverty incidence curve beginning inin the number of working poor. According to the 2007. The estimated rate for 2009 is 1.6 percentageInternational Labour Organization, one in five workers points higher than the rate projected on the basis ofand their families worldwide were living in extreme the pre-crisis trend. While this is a crude estimate, itpoverty (on less than $1.25 per person per day) in amounts to about 40 million more working poor at the2009. This represents a sharp decline in poverty from extreme $1.25 level in 2009 than would have beena decade earlier, but also a flattening of the slope expected on the basis of pre-crisis trends.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger | 11 TargeT Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.The proportion of people going hungryhas plateaued at 16 per cent, despitereductions in povertyNumber and proportion of people in the developing regionswho are undernourished, 1990-1992, 1995-1997,2000-2002 and 2005-2007Millions Percentage1,500 25 201,200 18 20 16 16 900 15 828 818 837 770 600 10 300 5 0 0 1990- 1995- 2000- 2005- 1992 1997 2002 2007 Number of Percentage of undernourished people undernourished peopleThe proportion of people in the developing world whowent hungry in 2005-2007 remained stable at 16 percent, despite significant reductions in extreme poverty.Based on this trend, and in light of the economiccrisis and rising food prices, it will be difficult to meetthe hunger-reduction target in many regions of thedeveloping world.The disconnect between poverty reduction and thepersistence of hunger has brought renewed attentionto the mechanisms governing access to food in thedeveloping world. This year, the Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations will undertakea comprehensive review of the causes behind thisapparent discrepancy to better inform hunger-reductionpolicies in the future.
12 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011Disparities within and among regions are found in the fight against hungerProportion of undernourished population, 2005-2007 (Percentage) Very high (undernourishment 35% and above) Moderately low (undernourishment 5-14%) High (undernourishment 25-34%) Very low (undernourishment below 5%) Moderately high (undernourishment 15-24%) Missing or insufﬁcient dataTrends observed in South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia in Eastern Asia since 1990 are largely due to progressand Latin America and the Caribbean suggest that they in China, while levels in South-Eastern Asia benefitare likely to meet the hunger-reduction target by 2015. from advances made in Indonesia and the Philippines.However, wide disparities are found among countries in Based on current trends, sub-Saharan Africa will bethese regions. For example, the strong gains recorded unable to meet the hunger-reduction target by 2015.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger | 13Nearly a quarter of children under lack of quality food, suboptimal feeding practices,five in the developing world remain repeated attacks of infectious diseases and pervasive undernutrition. In Southern Asia, for example, oneundernourished finds not only a shortage of quality food and poor feeding practices, but a lack of flush toilets andProportion of children under age ﬁve who are underweight, other forms of improved sanitation. Nearly half the1990 and 2009 (Percentage) population practises open defecation, resulting inSouthern Asia repeated bouts of diarrhoeal disease in children, which 52 contribute to the high prevalence of undernutrition. 43 Moreover, more than a quarter of infants in that regionSub-Saharan Africa weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth. Many of these 27 children are never able to catch up in terms of their 22 nutritional status. All these factors conspire to makeSouth-Eastern Asia underweight prevalence in the region the highest in the 30 world. 18Western Asia* Nutrition must be given higher priority in national 11 7 development if the MDGs are to be achieved. A number of simple, cost-effective measures deliveredEastern Asia 15 at key stages of the life cycle, particularly from 6 conception to two years after birth, could greatlyNorthern Africa 15 reduce undernutrition. These measures include 10 improved maternal nutrition and care, breastfeeding 6 within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for theCaucasus & Central Asia first 6 months of life, and timely, adequate, safe, and 7 appropriate complementary feeding and micronutrient 5 intake between 6 and 24 months of age. Urgent,Latin America & the Caribbean accelerated and concerted actions are needed to 10 deliver and scale up such interventions to achieve 4 MDG 1 and other health-related goals.Developing regions 30 230 10 20 30 40 50 60 1990 2009 Target* Regional aggregate only covers 47 per cent of the regionalpopulation, due to lack of data from Yemen.Note: Trend analysis is based on data from 64 countries covering73 per cent of the under-ﬁve population in developing regions.Prevalence of underweight children is estimated accordingto World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards.For the Caucasus & Central Asia, the baseline for trend analysisis 1996, since there are not sufﬁcient data for 1990.In developing regions, the proportion of children underage five who are underweight declined from 30 percent to 23 per cent between 1990 and 2009. Progressin reducing underweight prevalence was made in allregions where comparable trend data are available.Eastern Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, andthe Caucasus and Central Asia have reached or nearlyreached the MDG target, and South-Eastern Asia andNorthern Africa are on track.However, progress in the developing regions overallis insufficient to reach the target by 2015. Childrenare underweight due to a combination of factors:
14 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011In Southern Asia, progress in combatingchild undernutrition is bypassing thepoorestProportion of under-ﬁve children who are underweight inSouthern Asia, by household wealth, around 1995 and 2009(Percentage)80 64 63 6060 51 60 54 3740 47 4020 26 0 -5-20 -14 -21 -21 -30-40 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% Prevalence around 1995 Prevalence around 2009 Relative reduction between 1995 and 2009Children from the poorest households are more likelyto be underweight than their richer counterparts.Moreover, the poorest children are making the slowestprogress in reducing underweight prevalence. InSouthern Asia, for example, there was no meaningfulimprovement among children in the pooresthouseholds in the period between 1995 and 2009,while underweight prevalence among children from therichest 20 per cent of households decreased by almosta third.Children in developing regions are twice as likely tobe underweight if they live in rural rather than urbanareas. Little difference was found in underweightprevalence between girls and boys.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger | 15Close to 43 million people worldwide are displaced because of conflict or persecutionNumber of refugees and internally displaced persons, 2000-2010 (Millions)40 Refugees 15.2 15.430 16.0 16.0 15.2 14.6 13.7 13.8 14.3 Internally displaced persons 15.9 13.020 25.3 26.0 26.0 27.1 27.5 25.0 25.0 24.6 23.7 24.410 21.2 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Humanitarian crises and conflicts continue to uproot have been confined to camps and other settlementsmillions of people across the globe. They also hinder for many years without any solution in sight. Excludingthe return of refugees and those internally displaced. refugees under UNRWA’s mandate, UNHCR estimatesAs of end 2010, close to 43 million people worldwide that 7.2 million refugees spread across 24 countrieswere displaced due to conflict and persecution, the are currently trapped in a protracted situation of thishighest number since the mid-1990s and about half kind. This is the highest number since 2001 anda million more than the previous year. Of these, 15.4 clearly demonstrates the lack of permanent solutionsmillion are refugees, including 10.5 million who fall for many of the world’s refugees. The number ofunder the responsibility of the United Nations High refugees who have returned to their homes hasCommissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and 4.8 million continuously decreased since 2004, with the 2010Palestinian refugees who are the responsibility of the figures (197,600 returns) being the lowest since 1990.United Nations Relief and Works Agency for PalestineRefugees in the Near East (UNRWA). In addition, 27.5 On average, four out of five refugees are hosted bymillion people have been uprooted by violence and developing countries. Afghans and Iraqis continue topersecution but remain within the borders of their own be the largest refugee populations under the UNHCRcountries. While often not displaced per se, UNHCR mandate with 3 million and 1.7 million refugees,estimated that some 12 million people were stateless. respectively, at the end of 2010. Together they account for nearly half of all refugees under UNHCR’s mandate.While millions of refugees have found a durablesolution to their situation over the decades, others
16 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011 TargeT Goal 2 Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Achieve universal primary education Sub-Saharan Africa has the best record for improvement in primary school enrolment Adjusted net enrolment ratio in primary education,* 1998/1999 and 2008/2009 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa 58 76 Western Asia 83 88 Southern Asia 79 91 Caucasus & Central Asia 94 93 Northern Africa 86 94 South-Eastern Asia 93 94 Latin America & the Caribbean 93 95 Eastern Asia 95 96 Developed regions 97 96 Developing regions 82 89 0 25 50 75 100 1999 2009 * Deﬁned as the number of pupils of the theoretical school age for primary education enrolled either in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Note: Data for Oceania are not available. In the developing world as a whole, enrolment in primary education has increased slowly. The net enrolment ratio has gone up by just 7 percentage points since 1999, reaching 89 per cent in 2009. In more recent years, progress has actually slowed, with an increase of just 2 percentage points between 2004 and 2009, dimming prospects for reaching the MDG target of universal primary education by 2015.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education | 17Most regions have advanced somewhat, though Being poor, female or living in aprogress varies considerably among geographical conflict zone increases the probabilitygroupings. With an 18-percentage-point gain between1999 and 2009, sub-Saharan Africa has the best that a child will be out of schoolrecord for improvement, followed by Southern Asiaand Northern Africa, which had a 12-percentage- Distribution of out-of-school children by region, 1999 and 2009 (Percentage)point and an 8-percentage-point increase,respectively. By contrast, the net enrolment ratio fell 100from 94 per cent to 93 per cent in the Caucasus andCentral Asia.To achieve universal primary education, children 80 44everywhere must complete a full cycle of primary 48schooling. Current statistics show that the worldis far from meeting that goal. Only 87 out of 100children in the developing regions complete primary 60education.1 In half of the least developed countries,at least two out of five children in primary school dropout before reaching the last grade. 40 34 24In 2009, more than 20 per cent of primary-agechildren in least developed countries were excluded Sub-Saharan Africafrom education. Nevertheless, some of the poorest 6 Southern Asiacountries have made the greatest strides since 1999. Eastern Asia 20 6 5 South-Eastern AsiaBurundi, Madagascar, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and 4 4 Latin America & the CaribbeanPrincipe, Togo and the United Republic of Tanzania 4 4 Western Asiahave achieved or are nearing the goal of universal 3 2 Northern Africa 3 6primary education (with an adjusted net enrolment 0 3 Rest of the worldratio above 95 per cent). Considerable progress 1999 2009was also made in Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso,Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique and Niger, where The total number of children out of school fell fromnet enrolment ratios increased by more than 25 106 million to 67 million between 1999 and 2009.percentage points from 1999 to 2009. The abolition Almost half of these children—32 million—live inof school fees is considered an important driver of sub-Saharan Africa, despite the region’s strong effortsrapid progress in many of these countries. to increase enrolment. A quarter of the children out of school, or 16 million, are in Southern Asia. Being female, poor and living in a country affected1 Measured by the gross intake rate to the last grade of by conflict are three of the most pervasive factors primary education. keeping children out of school. Of the total number of primary-age children in the world who are not enrolled in school, 42 per cent—28 million—live in poor countries affected by conflict. Over the decade, the share of girls in the total out-of-school population dropped from 58 per cent to 53 per cent.
18 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011Refugee children face steep barriers to getting an educationChildren displaced from their homes face a multitude the remaining 62 camps, fewer than 70 per cent wereof problems, including getting an education, according enrolled. One reason for poor enrolment may be theto the United Nations High Commissioner for lack of qualified teachers willing to work in refugeeRefugees. In 87 urban areas for which the UNHCR has camps. Moreover, classrooms tend to be overcrowded,data, 37 per cent of refugee children had no access textbooks are generally in short supply, and basicto schooling. When they do, it is often an unsettling sanitation is frequently lacking. Among youth inexperience, due to stigma and discrimination that refugee camps, 73 per cent of adolescent girls and 66can result from being an outsider, the fact that they per cent of adolescent boys were out of school.may not understand the language of instructionand difficulties in obtaining certification of classes It is important to note that these data reflect onlycompleted. In addition, governments may not allow registered refugees. Those who are unregistered arerefugee children to attend public schools. A strained probably even less likely to attend school, since theyeconomic situation in the family often means that may have entered the country illegally. Access tochildren are forced to work or care for their siblings, education is particularly difficult for refugees livingand obligatory school fees may simply make education without legal status in urban areas.unaffordable. A major obstacle in remedying the situation is theOut of the 132 refugee camps with available data (in lack of funding for education in emergencies. Just 2both urban and rural areas), only 38 reported that all per cent of humanitarian aid globally is allocated torefugee children were enrolled in school. In 32 camps, education.at least 70 per cent of children were enrolled. And inThe majority of children who are out of school in sub-Saharan Africawill never enter a classroomDistribution of out-of-school children by school exposure, selected countries, surveys between 2002 and 2010 (Percentage)100 80 60 40 20 0 Senegal Guinea Ghana Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria India Ethiopia Nepal Bolivia Bangladesh Brazil Yemen Zambia Maldives Cambodia Colombia Pakistan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Timor-Leste D. R. Congo Expected never to enter Expected to enter Dropped out
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education | 19The majority of out-of-school children in sub-Saharan out-of-school children will eventually enter school,Africa are largely excluded from education, and most revealing the extent to which late entry is a widespreadwill never enter a classroom. However, household phenomenon. In that country, dropping out of primarysurvey data from 23 countries show that in several school is uncommon. In Nigeria, about three quarterscountries with large out-of-school populations, many of primary-age children who are out of school will likelychildren do have exposure to education. Countries have no exposure to education at all. This patternshow distinct patterns in the distribution of out-of- indicates that barriers to education in Nigeria areschool children. especially difficult to overcome.In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, In some countries, such as Brazil, Colombia and theabout half of all out-of-school children of primary Maldives, a significant proportion of out-of-schoolage are expected to enter school late. About one children had attended school in the past, but droppedquarter will never enter a classroom, while another out. In other countries, such as Cambodia, Liberia andquarter attended school in the past but dropped out. Zambia, most out-of-school children will be attendingIn Ethiopia, almost three quarters of primary-age school at some point in the near future.Southern Asia and Northern Africa lead the way in expandingliteracy among youthYouth literacy rate, 1990 and 2009 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa 65 72 Oceania 73 75 Southern Asia 60 80 Northern Africa 68 87 World 83 89 Western Asia 87 93 Latin America & the Caribbean 92 97 South-Eastern Asia 94 98 Eastern Asia 95 99 Caucasus & Central Asia 100 Developed regions 100 60 70 80 90 100Worldwide, the literacy rate of youth (aged 15 to 24) Still, it remains the region with the lowest youthincreased from 83 per cent to 89 per cent between literacy rate (72 per cent in 2009). In spite of overall1990 and 2009. Southern Asia and Northern Africa progress, 127 million young people lacked basicchalked up the most progress, with increases of reading and writing skills in 2009. Nearly 90 per cent20 percentage points and 19 percentage points, of all illiterate youth live in just two regions: Southernrespectively. Sub-Saharan Africa showed significant Asia (65 million) and sub-Saharan Africa (47 million).improvement as well—a rise of 7 percentage points.
20 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011 TargeT Goal 3 Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Promote gender equality and Girls are gaining ground when it comes empower women to education, though unequal access persists in many regions Gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio in primary, secondary and tertiary education (Girls’ school enrolment ratio in relation to boys’ enrolment ratio), 1998/1999 and 2008/2009 (Girls per 100 boys) Primary education Oceania 90 89 Sub-Saharan Africa 85 92 Western Asia 86 92 Northern Africa 90 95 Southern Asia 83 95 Latin America & the Caribbean 97 97 South-Eastern Asia 96 97 Caucasus & Central Asia 99 98 Eastern Asia 101 104 Developing regions 91 96 Secondary education Sub-Saharan Africa 82 79 Western Asia 74 86 Oceania 89 88 Southern Asia 75 89 Caucasus & Central Asia 98 98 Northern Africa 93 98 South-Eastern Asia 95 103 Eastern Asia 93 106 Latin America & the Caribbean 107 108 Developing regions 88 96 Tertiary education Sub-Saharan Africa 67 63 Southern Asia 65 74 Oceania 81 86 Western Asia 78 87 Northern Africa 74 98 Eastern Asia 67 103 Caucasus & Central Asia 91 107 South-Eastern Asia 96 109 Latin America & the Caribbean 117 126 Developing regions 82 97 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1999 2009 Target = Gender parity index between 97 and 103 In developing regions, 96 girls were enrolled in primary and in secondary school for every 100 boys in 2009. This is a significant improvement since 1999, when the ratios were 91 and 88, respectively. However, only three regions—the Caucasus and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and South-Eastern Asia— have achieved gender parity in primary education (defined
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women | 21as a gender parity index between 97 and 103). Latin America and the Caribbean when it comes toExceptionally, in Eastern Asia, girls slightly outnumber participation in secondary school.boys in primary school. Progress for girls has laggedin most other parts of the developing world, and The picture is quite different at the tertiary level ofequal access to education in the early years remains education. It is at this level that the gender paritya distant target in Northern Africa, Oceania, Southern index for the whole of the developing world is highest,Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia. at 97 girls for every 100 boys. But it is also where the greatest gender disparity is observed. Among theAt the level of secondary education, the Caucasus and developing regions, only Eastern Asia and NorthernCentral Asia, Northern Africa and South-Eastern Asia Africa have achieved gender parity in tertiaryhave achieved gender parity. However, girls remain education. Participation rates are either skewed heavilyat a distinct disadvantage in Oceania, Southern Asia, in favour of boys, as in Oceania, Southern Asia, sub-sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia. In contrast, Saharan Africa and Western Asia, or in favour of girls,girls have surpassed boys in Eastern Asia and in as in the Caucasus and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and South-Eastern Asia.Wide gaps remain in women’s access to paid work in at least half of all regionsEmployees in non-agricultural employment who are women, 1990, 2009 and projections to 2015 (Percentage)50 48 49 45 45 46 44 43 43 4440 42 41 40 38 38 38 36 36 37 36 35 35 33 3330 2420 22 20 19 19 20 19 19 15 1310 0 Western Northern Southern Sub-Saharan Oceania South-Eastern Eastern Latin America Caucasus Developed World Asia Africa Asia Africa Asia Asia & the & regions Caribbean Central Asia 1990 2009 2015 projectionsWorldwide, the share of women in non-agricultural wage employment represents only a minor share ofpaid employment increased from 35 per cent in 1990 employment for both women and men, who tend toto almost 40 per cent in 2009. Progress has slowed work in jobs that lack financial security and socialin recent years, however, due to the financial and benefits.economic crisis of 2008-2009. The situation in Northern Africa has remainedSouthern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa saw the greatest practically unchanged since 1990. In that region asimprovement, though the proportion of women in paid well as in Western Asia, fewer than one in five paidemployment in the former region remains below 20 per jobs outside the agricultural sector are heldcent. In sub-Saharan Africa, progress is undermined by women.to some extent by the fact that non-agricultural
22 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011Women have yet to see the fruits of the Representation by women in parliament2010 economic recovery is at an all-time high, but falls shamefully short of parityThe global financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 had an adverse impact on labour markets Proportion of seats held by women in single or lower houses of national parliaments, 2000 and 2011 (Percentage)worldwide and slowed progress towards many of theMDGs. Employment declined, unemployment increased Oceaniaand millions of people dropped out of the labour force 4because they were too discouraged to continue looking 2for work. Pay cheques, too, were affected. Western Asia 4At the onset of the crisis in 2009, unemployment rates 9for men were increasing faster than those for women. Northern AfricaIn 2010, the world economy began to recover and 3unemployment started to decrease among both sexes. 12However, the unemployment rate for men declined Caucasus & Central Asiafaster than that for women. This trend—combined 7with the fact that women’s unemployment rates 16already exceeded those of men—suggests that the South-Eastern Asiagap between women and men in many regions will not 12close any time soon. 18 Southern AsiaSimilarly, following significant job losses in 2008- 72009, the growth in employment that occurred during 18the recovery in 2010, especially in the developing Eastern Asiaregions, was lower for women than for men. Women 19,9employed in manufacturing industries were especially 19,5hard hit. Sub-Saharan Africa 13 20 Latin America & the Caribbean 15 23 Developed regions 16 23 Developing regions 12 18 World 14 19 0 5 10 15 20 25 2000 2011 Despite growing numbers of women parliamentarians, the target of equal participation of women and men in politics is still far off. By end-January 2011, women held 19.3 per cent of seats in single or lower houses of parliament worldwide. This is an all-time high. Still, it confirms a pattern of slow progress over the past 15 years from a world average of 11.6 per cent in 1995. In addition, large disparities are found in women’s representation among countries. In early 2011, women
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women | 23made up 30 per cent or more of the members of parliamentarians, from 19.3 per cent to 17.6 per centsingle or lower houses of parliaments in 25 countries, between 2010 and 2011. In the Philippines, womenincluding seven countries where the share was 40 lost ground in the upper house. In Oceania, theper cent or more. Some countries have achieved high percentage of women parliamentarians dropped to onlylevels of participation by women in either of these 2.3 per cent in 2011.houses of parliament: Rwanda (56.3 per cent), Sweden(45.0 per cent), South Africa (44.5 per cent) and Cuba Quota arrangements and measures taken by political(43.2 per cent). In contrast, 48 countries have less parties continue to be key predictors of success.than 10 per cent women members in their lower or Legislated quotas or voluntary party quotas have beensingle houses. Nine countries—Belize, the Federated implemented for 67 per cent of the 43 lower housesStates of Micronesia, Nauru, Oman, Palau, Qatar, with 30 per cent or more women members.Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu—have nowomen parliamentarians at all. At the leadership level, two parliaments saw women speakers elected for the first time: Mozambique andIn 2010, gains for women were registered in just half the United Republic of Tanzania. Worldwide, womenof all parliamentary elections or renewals. The most now account for only 13.4 per cent of presidingnotable progress was seen in Northern Africa, where officers in parliament. In January 2011, just 10women’s representation in single or lower houses countries had female heads of state, and 13 countriesincreased from 9.0 per cent to 11.7 per cent between had female heads of government.2010 and 2011. Progress was also made in WesternAsia, where women’s representation in single or lower Quotas are not the only factors that influence the levelhouses continued to rise: from 4.2 per cent in 2000 of women’s political participation, however. Electoralto 8.8 per cent in 2010 to 9.4 per cent in 2011. systems are also key, as are gender-sensitive electoralEven so, vast disparities are found among countries arrangements. In 2010, many women contenders forin the region. Moreover, progress for women is often political office suffered from a shortage of both mediadependent on special measures. In Bahrain, only one coverage and public appearances. Well trained andwoman parliamentarian, who ran unopposed, was financed women candidates and political will at theelected to the lower house. Meanwhile, the women in highest levels of political parties and governments areBahrain’s upper house, representing 27.5 per cent of paramount for overcoming gender imbalances in theits members, were mostly appointed. Jordan now has world’s parliaments.13 women in its lower house and nine women in itsupper house due to a strengthened quota system.In the Americas, Costa Rican women continue to wieldpower, representing 38.6 per cent of the lower house.The mid-term elections in the United States saw arecord number of women running for both houses ofCongress, but this did not result in major gains.Sub-Saharan Africa has also seen recent progress,with Ethiopia, Madagascar and the United Republicof Tanzania recording improvements in 2010. Burundiconsolidated its representation by women in the lowerhouse of parliament with an increase to 32.1 per cent,from 30.5 per cent in 2005, and saw a significantrise in the upper house (from 34.7 to 46.3 per cent),largely due to a quota system. Women’s representationin Sao Tome and Principe, unaided by quotas,increased from 7.3 per cent in 2006 to 18.2 per centin 2010.In a year of high-profile elections, Southern Asiaand South-Eastern Asia saw no progress. Womenmaintained strong representation in Afghanistan inthe 2010 polls, but this resulted in only a small gainof one additional woman parliamentarian. South-Eastern Asia saw a small drop in the number of women
24 | The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011 TargeT Goal 4 Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under- five mortality rate Reduce child Achieving the goal for child survival hinges on mortality action to address the leading causes of death Under-ﬁve mortality rate, 1990 and 2009 (Deaths per 1,000 live births) Sub-Saharan Africa 180 129 Southern Asia 122 69 Oceania 76 59 Caucasus & Central Asia 78 37 South-Eastern Asia 73 36 Western Asia 68 32 Northern Africa 80 26 Latin America & the Caribbean 52 23 Eastern Asia 45 19 Developed regions 15 7 Developing regions 99 66 0 50 100 150 200 1990 2009 2015 target Steady progress is being made in reducing child deaths. Globally, the mortality rate for children under five has declined by a third, from 89 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 60 in 2009. All regions, except sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and Oceania, have seen reductions of at least 50 per cent. Despite population growth, the number of deaths in children under five worldwide declined from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009, which translates into nearly 12,000 fewer children dying each day. The greatest success is found in Northern Africa and Eastern Asia, where under-five mortality declined by 68 per cent and
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality | 2558 per cent, respectively. Among countries with high time, major inroads are being made. Four of the tenunder-five mortality (above 40 deaths per 1,000 live countries with more than a 50 per cent reduction inbirths), 10 countries reduced their rates by at least child deaths between 1990 and 2009 are in sub-half. Among them, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Lao People’s Saharan Africa. Furthermore, five of the six countriesDemocratic Republic, Madagascar, Nepal and Timor- with a reduction of more than 100 deaths per 1,000Leste recorded a 60 per cent drop or more. live births are in this region.The highest levels of under-five mortality continue Increasing evidence suggests that the MDG target canto be found in sub-Saharan Africa, where one in be reached, but only with substantial and acceleratedeight children die before the age of five (129 deaths action to eliminate the leading killers of children. Inper 1,000 live births), nearly twice the average in sub-Saharan Africa, diarrhoea, malaria and pneumoniadeveloping regions overall and around 18 times the are responsible for more than half the deaths of childrenaverage in developed regions. With rapid progress in under five. In Southern Asia, over half of all childhoodother regions, the disparities between them and sub- deaths occur in the first 28 days after birth, pointingSaharan Africa have widened. Southern Asia has the to the need for better post-natal care. In both regions,second highest rate—69 deaths per 1,000 live births undernutrition is an underlying cause of a third of theseor about one child in 14. deaths. Special efforts to fight pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, while bolstering nutrition, could save theAll of the 31 countries with under-five mortality of lives of millions of children.at least 100 deaths per 1,000 live births, exceptAfghanistan, are in sub-Saharan Africa. At the sameChildren in rural areas are more at risk of dying, even in regions wherechild mortality is lowRatio of rural to urban under-ﬁve mortality rate, 2000/2008 Despite substantial progress in reducing childLatin America & the Caribbean deaths, children from rural households are still at a 1.7 disadvantage, according to household survey data fromEastern Asia (excluding China) & South-Eastern Asia 80 countries. This holds true for all developing regions. 1.6 Disparities are most pronounced in Latin America andSouthern Asia the Caribbean and in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia 1.5 (excluding China), where overall child mortality is low.Northern Africa & Western Asia 1.4Sub-Saharan Africa 1.4Caucasus & Central Asia 1.3Developing regions 1.40 1 2 Higher under-ﬁve mortality Higher under-ﬁve mortality in urban areas in rural areas EqualNote: Analysis is based on 80 developing countries with data onunder-ﬁve mortality rate by residence, accounting for 73 per cent oftotal births in developing regions in 2008.