How People Learn
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How People Learn

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How people learn, exploring the key findings from Chapter 1 of "How People Learn." Plus, implications for teaching including peer instruction. A weekly workshop by the Center for Teaching......

How people learn, exploring the key findings from Chapter 1 of "How People Learn." Plus, implications for teaching including peer instruction. A weekly workshop by the Center for Teaching Development at UCSD.

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  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • In this class, we will be changing the “design” of the learning process with the goal of giving you much greater opportunity to get feedback on your learning from the “expert” – the professors.Since you are intelligent, and you can buy access to the basics of the knowledge needed for this class in the form of the textbook, we’ll ask you to get your first exposure to the material by reading the book (or other assigned resources) and getting the “basics” for yourself. To help guide you in this, we’ll provide a set of questions that give you the idea of the kind of things you should “get” after reading the textbook. At least 2 of these questions will be on the “quiz” that we’ll give (with clickers) at the beginning of lecture.Why a quiz at the beginning of lecture? A few reasons: 1) it gives you an excuse to do the homework. You are busy people, and by giving you quiz points for doing the homework and preparing for lecture, we’re giving you the incentive to fit it into your schedule. 2) You should ACE every quiz. Quizzes are over the *basic* information from the textbook – getting all the questions on the quiz right let’s you know you learned enough from reading in order to be prepared to engage and learn in “lecture”.During lecture, I’ll be presenting some of the “hard stuff” that I know that students often struggle with or that the book doesn’t explain particularly well. Sometimes I will “explain things” in a way that looks like lecture. But a lot of the time, I will be letting you TEST YOUR OWN UNDERSTANDING and deepen your understanding – by presenting a question for you to solve, and having your discuss it in a team of your peers to help you make sure you really do get it. This is where the clickers come in – you will vote on your answer with them, so I can adapt what we do in class to address issues you are not sure about. Finally in lab, we’ll have you practice your mastery of the material <<TAKE THIS OUT IF YOU DON’T HAVE LAB, PERHAPS REPLACE WITH WHATEVER YOU DO>>. And then we’ll let you show us how much you have mastered on exams.Again: This process is based around giving you the opportunity to get access to expert help and explanation, when you need it. Not leaving you alone at night when you are doing your homework…This process is also based in research on “how people learn”. Researchers have shown that people each construct their own understanding – individually. It’s not possible for me to “dump” or transmit understanding into your brain. Each of you is a unique individual, and you will each need to work and construct your own understanding.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.

Transcript

  • 1. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/2012/11/how-people-learn/ HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca #ctducsd
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Theories of Learning3 Many lectures based in transmissionist learning model.
  • 4. Scientifically Outdated,4 Culturally a Known Failure
  • 5. How People Learn15  People actively construct their own knowledge  Individual  Based in pre-existing understanding  Biologically, learning changes the brain  Proteinsform, neurons fire  Technology allowing us to observe learning as it happens (fMRIs) [1] Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, National Research Council. "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.
  • 6. How People Learn6 Learning is not about what professors do. It’s about what students do!
  • 7. How People Learn7 Learning is not about what professors do. It’s about what students do! Corollary: Students will not learn (just) by listening to the professor explain
  • 8. Let’s have a learning8 experience…
  • 9. New Coding System9 Please memorize this code: 1= 4= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6= 9= 0=
  • 10. Test10 What is this number?
  • 11. New Coding System11 Here’s the structure of the code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0=
  • 12. Test12 What is this number?
  • 13. Constructivism13  All new learning is based in pre-existing knowledge that you hold.  You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are made with previous existing memories.  Higher-level learning = brain development T.J. Shors, “Saving New Brain Cells” Sci. Amer. 300, 46-54 (March 2009).
  • 14. Another Example of14 Constructivism: Put up your hand when you know what this means: NBCNRAFBIUSAIRS
  • 15. Key Finding 115 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 14.
  • 16. How do you think undergrad students feel about learning your16 field? A B C D E Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. To learn [your field], I only need to memorize facts and definitions.
  • 17. How do you think undergrad students feel about learning your17 field? A B C D E Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. To learn [your field], I only need to memorize facts and definitions. 2. Knowledge in [your field] consists of many disconnected topics.
  • 18. Key Finding 218 To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must:  have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,  understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and  organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 16.
  • 19. Key Finding 319 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 18.
  • 20. Please break into groups of 3...20 Each set of cards has  3 Key Findings  3 Implications for Teaching  3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: For each Key Finding, match one Implication for Teaching and one Designing Classroom Environment.
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22 Implications for Instructors and Teaching Assistants
  • 23. Traditional (lecture) class23 Lecture Textbook Homework Exam First Read Hard Stuff See if You Show Knowledge Exposure Know Hard Stuff Mastery  students get very little opportunity for “expert” feedback
  • 24. Constructivist class24 Homework Lecture Lab Exam Q U I Z First Exposure: Learn Hard Stuff: Practice Show Knowledge With resources and With teacher and Knowledge Mastery Feedback discussion Mastery  Everyone constructs their own understanding: I can’t dump understanding into your brain. To learn, YOU must actively work with a problem and construct your own understanding of it.  Greater opportunity for expert feedback
  • 25. When you are the instructor,25 try… Peer Instruction (aka “clickers”)  One of most-studied active learning techniques for improving learning  Works in the large and small lecture halls  Focuses students on their role and responsibility as the learner
  • 26. Typical Peer Instruction26 Episode Alternating with 5-10 minute “mini-lectures”, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, coloured cards, ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.
  • 27. Reacting to their votes27 When you know the first-vote distribution (but the students don’t) you have many options:  confirm and move on  ask students to discuss with their peers, vote again  ask students to advocate for the choices they made, vote again  check that the question made sense  eliminate one or more choices before re- voting  and more...
  • 28. In effective peer instruction28  students teach each other immediately, students learn while they may still hold or remember and practice their novice misconceptions how to think,  students discuss the concepts in theircommunicate own language like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts
  • 29. Effective peer instruction29 requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions before 2. creating multiple-choice questions that class require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes during that spark student discussion class 4. resolving the misconceptions
  • 30. Clicker Question30 The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from a) sunlight. b) the air. c) the seed. d) the soil. Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg Question credit: Bill Wood
  • 31. Active Learning Techniques for31 Discussion Sections  Think, Pair Share or peer instruction with clickers  One-Minute papers: What is most confusing right now? (“muddiest point”)  Problem Solving in Groups  Provide scaffold/structure  Ask what steps would you take to solve problem (versus actually solving them)  Critique or “fix” sample work/problem  overhead slides, document cameras, board?
  • 32. Discussion Sections32 Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand!
  • 33. Discussion Sections33 Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand! Corollary 1: Students will not understand (just) by watching the TA solve problems.
  • 34. Discussion Sections34 Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand! Corollary 1: Students will not understand (just) by watching the TA solve problems. Corollary 2: BE LESS HELPFUL.
  • 35. But really ask yourself…35 Who is doing the work? You or the students?
  • 36. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/2012/11/how-people-learn/ HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca #ctducsd