LearningProcess produce relatively change inbehavior.Acquisition of new knowledge, skill,beliefs, and feeling.
all includes classical and operant.Learning consists of new stimuli-response connections through practiceand strengthened through associationwith external rewards.Behaviorism theory
Classical ConditioningTheoryPavlov/WatsonPC--Conditioning with neutral(conditioned stimulus) gains aresponse result to its paring withnatural stimulusStimulus generalization- stimulus transfer to another stimuli.Discrimination- not to respond with the same stimulus/mannerExtinction- conditioned response lost.Recovery- recover lost respondedApplied to classroom:Providing positive classroom environmentHelp student s to experience successPresenting lesson in gradual and keeping student relaxed and happy
Operant conditioning/InstrumentalB. F. SkinnerSO-REWARD ANDPUNISHMENTConsequences of behavior based upon its environment whetherreinforce or eliminates the behavior.Reinforcement not synonymous to rewards it is given after, motivationgive beforePositive reinforcement- strengthen behaviorNegative reinforcement- weakens behaviorApplied to classroom by:Providing more opportunities for practiceReinforcing (praise, incentives etc)if desirableProviding more rewards than punishment
S-R ConnectionismThorndikeConTFormed between stimuli and responseOccur in TRIAL and ERRORLearning by selecting and connectingLawsa. readiness-to do so satisfying, not to do so annoyingb. Exercise- longer connection increase, shorter connectiondecrease.c. Effects- response accompanied by satisfaction is firm, ifaccompanied by discomfort weakd. Feedback- comment or judgments on the exercises.Reward is greater thanpunishment
Social Cognitive Learning Theory/ ImitationBandura/ Wallace SBLEARNED by individual observe fromother. It affects the way people actAttention- exposing/ observing a modelRetention- learn symbolically, reproduction of desired behaviorReproduction- produce internal model of the environment guide observerbehaviorMotivation no performance unless conditioned are favorableObservational learning- individual recombine previously learned behaviorto produce newly response.Inhibitory effect- strengthen for weakensSocial facilitation- actingApplied to classroom by;Modeling desirable behaviorMake sure that students are physically capable of doing the modeledbehavior and that they can demonstrate this behavior.Exposing student to a variety of exemplary behavior/models
Meaningful LearningDavid P. AusubelMaus-schemaLearning takes place when new acquired info is connected to what isalready learned.Material should be related to student’s schemaOccurs inReception learningDiscovery learning
Discovery LearningJerome BrunerDLBStudent should discover what to learn. Learning involvesrearrangement and transformation of materials that led to insightAcquisition – obtaining new info..it is replace and refinedTransformation – manipulating info.. To fit new situationEvaluation – if info, has been manipulatedIntegrate materials to existing cognitive structures
Gestalt TheoryKohler, Koffka,WertheimerG2KWGestalt- forms and pattern, organize as a whole. How organism perceiveideas and effect of the relationship on memory and learningPerception influence experience, we learn when we arrange ideas intopatternLaw ofcontinuity-organizationtends preservesmooth continuityrather than abruptchange..Law ofclosure-incompletefigure tend tobe seen ascomplete .Law ofproximity-holds thingsclose togetheras grouptogether .Law ofsimilarity-similar objectstends to berelated
Life Topological andVector (field)SpaceconceptLevinLSLLife space of an individual consist of everything one needs toknow about a person in order to understand his/her behavior inspecific timeObject exist in a field of forcesNothing is so practical as a good theory.
Problem Solving byInsightKholerPSIKExample : CHIMPANZEE get the banana by using the stick – onelong one short.Perception of new relationship-- chimpanzee solve the problem orgain insight into the relationship between the two stick andbanana.Previous experience with the essential of the problem hadbeen necessary in order to develop insight
Cumulative LearningTheoryGagneCLGLearning occurs as the individual develops HOTs but need thepreviously learn lower skills.Stimulus- response learning – responding to specific stimuli thathave been discriminated from other stimuliMotor verbal chain- combining 2 or more separate motor/verbalresponses to develop complex skills.Concept –learning -giving labels to facts, relate and group ittogether.Rule Learning- concepts learned earlier are taken together to form arule, principle and generalization.Problem Solving- applying concepts previously learnedLower skills-=====---hots
Gagne’s Conditions of learning• Most complex condition involving applying rules to solveproblem(solving word problems)Problemsolving• Combining and relating concepts ready learned to form rules(1+2=3 ==2+1=3)Principlelearning• Classifying and organizing perception to gain meaningfulconcepts (all dogs have four legs)Concept learning• Learners select a response applies to certainstimuli(selecting 2 when __+1=3)Discrimination• Labeling certain response(__+1=2)Verbal Association• Series of S-R are links(adding 1 and2)Chaining• Voluntary response similar to operantconditioning( getting ready to move asfire alarm heard.)Stimulus response• Involuntary response. Similar toclassical conditioning(touchingiron and flinching)Signal learning
InformationProcessing TheoryAtkinson & ShiffrinIPT-ASStorage- info gets into memoryEncoding- information changes as get into memoryRetrieval -info.. Previously stored is recalledSensory register- info transfer to short term memory, if nothinghappen it is forgotten.Short-term working memory- info is organized for storage or discard.Storage- info gets into memory.Long-term memory- info kept for along period of time.Process of organizing info into mind like computer.
Constructivist theory ofLearningPiaget and VygotskyCons-PVyUsing acquired info to construct or build new ideas prior to theirschemaTeacher should provide students to construct on their own.Challenges teacher not to dispense knowledge but to provide studentswith opportunities and incentives to build up and to serve as guides tobecome sense makersConstruction of ideas
Metacognitive theoryof LearningThinking aboutthinkingThinking beyond, and self monitoring process of how you think and toemploy it successfully.Consist of awareness not only of what to do to perform a taask effectivelybut when and how various cognitive processes can be employed to success.TWO COMPONENTSMeta comprehension- knowledge about regulation for understanding CERTANPROCEDURE IN OPERATIONMetamemory- apply technique in memorizing E.G MNEMONICSMAY BE ACQUIRED through:Knowledge of others’ success or experiencesAnalysis of the goals of the cognitive tasksAnalysis of the strategies employed in performing tasks.Experience that accompany attempts at metacognition. E.g. frustrationwhen what is being taught is not understand
Desirable Conditions for Learning1. Motivation2. Retention3. Transfer
Motivation- conditions that predispose an individual to learn, something or to avoidthings. It is statement of desires, goals, likes, dislikes, wants, fearsTheories of Motivation1. Instinct theory/Genetic Pattern ( Lorenz)2. Association theory (Thorndike)3. Drive Theory/ psychoanalytic theory (Freud)4. Need Gratification Theory (Maslow)5. Attribution Theory (Weiner)6. Self-Determination Theory (Deci)7. Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura)8. Cognitive Theory (Hunt)9. Drive Reduction Theory (Hull)10. Expectancy Theory (Atkinson)
Instinct Theory/ Genetic PatternTheory (Lorenz)Speculate that motivation is built intoeveryone through heredity: that is it isthe product of inherited and innateinstincts/natural feeling
Association theory (Thorndike)A deprivation/deficit of need will cause theindividual to act to satisfy that need
Drive Theory/ psychoanalytictheory (Freud)Individuals behave as they do because theirearly experiences drive them instinctively to doso.
Need Gratification Theory (MaslowSatisfy basic needs is the cause of human behabiorAn individuals does something to ssatisfy his or her needs1. Hunger drive, food drive thirst drive (basic needs)2. Security3. Love and belongingness4. Self-esteem5. Self-efficacy
Attribution Theory (Weiner)People seeks to understand why they succeedor fail, which may be due to ability, effort, task,difficulty, luck and help or hindrance fromothers.
Self-Determination Theory (Deci)An attitude of determination is thefoundation of motivation; behaviors arebased solely on the individuals preferences .
Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura)The key to individual achievement lies withthe learner’s own belief in the ability toexecute actions required of a successfulperformance
Cognitive Theory (Hunt)Man is rational and continuously decideswhat he will or will not do. Motivescuriously and intention activate anddirect individuals to action that producesatisfaction are repeated.
Drive Reduction Theory (Hull)Reducing that which energizes behavior(drive)is satisfying and behaviors thatproduce satisfaction are repeated.
Expectancy Theory (Atkinson)People’s motivation to act depends on theirestimation is estimation of being successfuland the incentive value they place on successin the activity
RETENTIONIs the process whereby long-term memory preserves learning in such a way that what hasbeen stored in the memory can be located, identified and retrieved accurately when the needarises.Is influenced by many factors including degree of focus, length and type of rehearsal thatoccurred; student learning style, prior learning, and learning difficulties.Is opposed to forgetting in which the physical record of memory in the brain fades away eitherthrough disuse, interference, reorganization or through motivation.It requires that the learner not only gives conscious attention but also builds conceptualframework that have sense and meaning for eventual consolidation with long-term storagenetwork..Rehearsal is the process that allows the leaner to have the adequate time to process newlearning before sense and meaning are attached to it. Although rehearsal does not guaranteeinformation transfer into long term storage it contributes to this. There is also long term storagewithout rehearsalRote rehearsal- used when learners need to remember and storageinformation exactly as it is entered into working memory, it involvesdirect instructionElaborate rehearsal- used when it is important to associate newlearnings with prior learnings to detect relationships; requires complexthinking process
TRANSFERTHE PROCESS OF APPYING KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL PRVIOSLY LEARNED IN ONESITUATION TO A NEW DIFFERENT SITUATIONTwo types:1. Lateral transfer- when an individual is able to perform a new task that requirespreviously learned skills example solving word problems from text book and lateron the board2. Vertical transfer- when individual is able to learn more complex or advanced skillsexample being able to add and multiply, being able to read and write.Theories of transfer:Formal-discipline theory- facilities of the mind that can be strengthened throughpractice such as memory, reason, will, and imagination.Identical elements theory- elements such as facts, skills, and methods present inthe original learning situation must be presented in a new but relevant situation.Generalization theory- facts and concepts that have been previously learned mustlead to formulation of principles used in a new situation.Transposition theory- it is possible if there is understanding of the relationshipsamongst he facts, processes and principles.
Theory of multiple intelligencesHoward Gardner1. Mathematical/logical- number smart2. Verbally/linguistic- word smart3. Natural/nature- nature smart4. Musical- rhythmic smart5. Spatial- art smart6. Bodily kinesthetic- gestures /movement smart7. Intrapersonal- self communication8. Interpersonal- communication to other9. Existentialist-spirit smart10. Interactionist- if you have all the characteristics