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Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
Plant Science part 1
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Plant Science part 1

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  • 1.  
  • 2. <ul><li>Non-vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Seedless vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Seeded vascular </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><ul><li>No conducting (vascular) tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually small, grows close to the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be found in moist environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryophytes such as mosses and liverworts </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><ul><li>Vascular tissue well-developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No seeds produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns, club mosses, horsetails </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><ul><li>Seeds contain an embryo with nutrients and protective outer coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular tissue is extensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most plants we know are in this category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 categories- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocotyledons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Two types of systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Root System </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot System: stem, leaf, flower </li></ul><ul><li>Plant organs: </li></ul><ul><li>root, stem, leaf, flower </li></ul><ul><li>referred to as plant parts </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Anchorage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps plant in the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents soil erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds stem in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissolved minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/taproot_fibrousroot.jpg http://tchefty.wikispaces.com/file/view/rootsystems1.jpg/260637884/rootsystems1.jpg http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/2153/rootsystems1.jpg
  • 9. <ul><li>Large long primary root </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrate deep into the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Small thin roots grow laterally off main root </li></ul><ul><li>Strong anchoring system </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: evergreen trees </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Specialized to store water, food, nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Better chance at drought survival </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: carrot, beet, turnip, radish </li></ul>http://www.ontarioweeds.com/media/jpg/tropr_root.jpg
  • 11. <ul><li>Many small roots that branch </li></ul><ul><li>Increases surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Better absorption of water and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Less structural support </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: peas, beans, lettuce </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Small fibrous objects that branch off roots </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs water and minerals </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Zone of maturation : cells differentiate into different types of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of elongation : allows the root to get deeper within the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Meristematic region : rapid mitosis of undifferentiated meristematic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Root cap : protects the meristematic region </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Cells in the root have no chloroplasts and are not exposed to sunlight so they can not undergo photosynthesis to make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Root cells must perform cellular respiration to obtain cellular energy </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose comes from the starch stored in the root </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is absorbed through the soil </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Stem </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Flower </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Raises and supports branches, leaves and flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of water and nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>In trees the main stem is the tree trunk </li></ul>http://www.pxleyes.com/images/contests/bw%20tree%20trunks/fullsize/bw%20tree%20trunks_4b6283790291c.jpg
  • 17. <ul><li>Young green stems can perform photosynthesis because they have chloroplast in their epidermal cells </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Some are specialized for food storage </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: sugar cane, potatoes </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Sugar_Cane.jpg
  • 19. <ul><li>Main function: Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of the Leaf: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guard Cells & Stoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palisade cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy Layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular Tissue </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Outer layer of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf epidermis produces cuticle </li></ul>http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Images/05%20Nutrition/15a%20Cross%20Section%20of%20a%20Leaf.jpg
  • 21. <ul><li>Waxy substance that coats the exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Water proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Protect interior tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks passage of gases </li></ul>http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Images/05%20Nutrition/15a%20Cross%20Section%20of%20a%20Leaf.jpg
  • 22. <ul><li>Stoma (Greek for “mouth”) </li></ul><ul><li>Pore-like openings in the plant’s epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Opening size controlled by two guard cells </li></ul><ul><li>permits gas exchange between the leaf’s interior and external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>larger opening, faster gas exchange </li></ul>
  • 23.  
  • 24. <ul><li>Where water is stored </li></ul><ul><li>Where the vascular tissues reside </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Contains many chloroplast for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Cells stand tall and upright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top end exposed to light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom end exposed to the gases in the spongy layer </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>Scanning electron microscope image of a leaf from a Black Walnut tree. (Dartmouth Electron Microscope Facility/Dartmouth College) </li></ul>http://cache.boston.com/universal/site_graphics/blogs/bigpicture/micro_11_14/m04_walnut_leaf.jpg
  • 27. <ul><li>Dermal Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Tissue </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Outermost layer of a plant </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis: thin layer of cells that covers the surface of leaf, stem and root </li></ul><ul><li>Periderm tissue: bark on stem and large roots of woody plants (replaces the epidermis) </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>Some dermal tissues have unique functions </li></ul><ul><li>Root cells: root hairs (long extensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf cells: produce cuticle </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>Plant circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels that connect roots to leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Transports water, dissolved minerals, and sugars throughout plant, providing cells with materials to carry out life functions </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>made up of long hollow tubes formed by non-living cell walls (left over from plant cells that have died) </li></ul><ul><li>transports water and dissolved minerals upwards from roots </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>Made up of elongated cells that are living </li></ul><ul><li>Transports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solutions of sugars (food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bi-directional movement of materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>downward to roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upward to leaves </li></ul></ul>
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  

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