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Chapter 31 Plant Structure and Function


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Chapter 31 for MVPS

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Chapter 31 Plant Structure and Function

  1. 1. Chapter 31 Plant Structure, Reproduction, and Development 0
  2. 2. <ul><li>A Gentle Giant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are one of two groups of seed plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bear seeds in cones </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Angiosperms, or flowering plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are the most familiar and diverse group of plants </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  4. 4. TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE <ul><li>31.1 Plant scientist Natasha Raikhel studies the Arabidopsis plant as a model biological system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natasha Raikhel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is one of America’s most prominent plant biologists </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.1A
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Dr. Raikhel works with Arabidopsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A popular model organism for studying biological systems </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.1B
  6. 6. PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION <ul><li>31.2 The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocots and dicots differ in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of seed leaves and in the structure of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.2 Fibrous root system MONOCOTS Seed leaves Leaf veins Stems Flowers Roots One cotyledon Main veins usually parallel Vascular bundles in complex arrangement Floral parts usually in multiples of three Two cotyledons Main veins usually branched Vascular bundles arranged in ring Floral parts usually in multiples of four or five Taproot usually present DICOTS
  7. 7. <ul><li>31.3 A typical plant body consists of roots and shoots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A plant’s root system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors it in the soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs and transports minerals and water and stores food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>The shoot system of a plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is made up of stems, leaves, and adaptations for reproduction, flowers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>The body of a dicot </li></ul></ul>Figure 31.3 Terminal bud Blade Petiole Axillary bud Stem Taproot Root hairs Epidermal cell Root hair Internode Node Flower Shoot system Root system Leaf
  10. 10. <ul><li>31.4 Many plants have modified roots, stems, and leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some plants have unusually large taproots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That store food in the form of carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.4A
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Many plants have modified stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That store food or function in asexual reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.4B Strawberry plant Potato plant Stolon (runner) Taproot Rhizome Tuber Ginger plant Rhizome Root
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Other types of plants have modified leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That function in protection or climbing </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.4C
  13. 13. <ul><li>31.5 Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most plant cells have three unique structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts, the sites of photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A central vacuole containing fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cell wall that surrounds the plasma membrane </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.5A Chloroplast Central vacuole Cell walls Primary cell wall Middle lamella Secondary cell wall Plasma membrane Cell walls of adjoining cells Plasmodesmata Pit Plasma membrane Microtubules Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Plants have five major types of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma, which perform most of the metabolic functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collenchyma, which provide support </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.5B Figure 31.5C Primary cell wall (thin) Pit Starch-storing vesicles LM 270  Primary cell wall (thick) LM 270 
  15. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma, the main component of wood </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.5D Secondary cell wall Pits Fiber cells Primary cell wall Secondary cell wall Primary cell wall Pits Sclereid cells Fiber Sclereid LM 266  LM 200 
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Angiosperms have water-conducting cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheids and vessel elements </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.5E Pits Openings in end wall Vessel element Tracheids Pits Colorized SEM 150 
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Sieve-tube members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are food-conducting cells </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.5F Sieve plate Companion cell Primary cell wall Cytoplasm
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Two kinds of vascular tissue are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem, which conveys water and minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem, which transports sugars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>31.6 Three tissue systems make up the plant body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each plant organ is made up of three tissue systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.6 Vein Guard cells Cuticle Upper epidermis Mesophyll Lower epidermis Stoma Xylem Phloem Dicot leaf Dicot stem Sheath Vascular bundle Cortex Pith Epidermis Monocot stem Vascular bundle Epidermis Epidermis Vascular cylinder Xylem Phloem Cortex Endodermis Dicot root Key Dermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>The dermal tissue system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers and protects the plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vascular tissue system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains xylem and phloem and provides long-distance transport and support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ground tissue system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of parenchyma cells and supportive collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PLANT GROWTH <ul><li>31.7 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meristems, areas of unspecialized, dividing cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are where plant growth originates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Apical meristems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are located in the tips of roots and in the terminal and axillary buds of shoots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate primary (lengthwise) growth by producing new cells </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.7A Terminal bud Axillary buds Root tips Arrows = direction of growth
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Roots are covered with a root cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That protects the cells of the apical meristem </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.7B Vascular cylinder Root hair Cortex Epidermis Zone of maturation Zone of elongation Zone of cell division Root cap Apical meristem region Cellulose fibers Key Dermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Axillary bud meristems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are found near the apical meristems </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.7C Apical meristem Leaves Axillary bud meristems 1 2 LM 103 
  25. 25. <ul><li>31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary growth arises from cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a cylindrical meristem called the vascular cambium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>The vascular cambium thickens a stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By adding layers of secondary xylem, or wood, next to its inner surface </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.8A Year 1 Early Spring Year 1 Late Summer Year 2 Late Summer Growth Growth Growth Primary xylem Vascular cambium Primary phloem Cor tex Epidermis Secondary xylem (wood) Cork Cork cambium Secondary phloem Bark Shed epidermis Secondary xylem (2 years’ growth) Key Dermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>The heartwood and sapwood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of different layers of xylem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the vascular cambium, the bark consists mainly of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary phloem, cork cambium, and protective cork cells </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 31.8B Heartwood Sapwood Rings Wood rays Heartwood Vascular cambium Sapwood Secondary phloem Cork cambium Cork Bark