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ST  I MULI Done By: Mint + Thon IB Biology HL Y2
SENSORY cells: send messages to the part of the brain that controls                     emotion and memory               M...
Mechanoreceptors: respond to mechanical force/pressurePressure:       Touching (Skin)                Change in blood press...
Proprioreceptors: maintain posture and balance
Chemoreceptors: respond to chemical substancesChemical:        Taste and Smell (Tongue + Nose)                 Monitor pH ...
Thermoreceptors: respond to change in temperatureWarmthreceptors: respond when temperature risesColdreceptors: respond whe...
Photoreceptors: respond to light energyLight: Sensitive to light & give us vision (eye)    Rod Cell:      Respond to dim l...
Outer ear catches sound waves         Sound waves: successive vibrations of air molecules1.   EARDRUM2.   BONES of the MID...
Sound waves entered  VIBRATE the eardrum ROLE: Pick up sound vibrations from the air                Transmitthem to the m...
There’s a risk of breaking the ear drum(perforation)Although this is commonly done…it’srecommend against using cotton tipp...
Series of small bones --- OssiclesOssicles: All of them are touched                    Touched with eardrum and oval windo...
Muscles:Attached to ossicles to protect ear from                     loudsounds --- by contracting to damp                ...
Membranous structure --- like eardrumOval Window:    Transmitting sound waves to fluidRound Window: Allows movement of flu...
Fluid in cochlea can vibrate freely -- volume remaining constant
Cochlea ---      a tube wound to form spiral shape                 hair receptors (hair cells) on membraneSound waves pass...
. ....On the Outside• Iris: Regulation• Pupil: Admittance• Lens + Cornea: Focus• Sclera: Protect & Serve• Conjunctiva: Cov...
From the Inside                                      • Aqueous Humor:                                      Transmission & ...
• Light focused on retina’s photoreceptor cells     • Rods     • Cones• Vision: Light → Photoreceptor cell → Bipolar neuro...
• Sensitivity & Function     • Rods: High sensitivity, prefers dim lights     • Cones: Low sensistivity, prefers bright li...
• Light stimulates rods and cones• Impulses sent to Bipolar Neurones & Ganglion cells• Brain corrects image orientation• S...
• Ganglion cells stimulated when lightfalls in receptive field• 2 types of Ganglion cells      • A: Light on receptive fie...
• Optic Chiasma: Intersection of L & R opticnerves• Sharing of information:     • L to R, R to L     •½+½=1• Brain able to...
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
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E2 perception of stimuli

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E2 perception of stimuli

  1. 1. ST I MULI Done By: Mint + Thon IB Biology HL Y2
  2. 2. SENSORY cells: send messages to the part of the brain that controls emotion and memory Music or food reminds our childhood times Sense organ: Mouth, Eye, Tongue, Nose, Skin Filled with sensory neurons Send messages to CNS We see, smell, taste, feel with our BRAIN! (not sense organ)
  3. 3. Mechanoreceptors: respond to mechanical force/pressurePressure: Touching (Skin) Change in blood pressure (Arteries) Auditory and Equibrioception* (Ears) (sense of balance)Proprioreceptors: maintain posture and balance
  4. 4. Proprioreceptors: maintain posture and balance
  5. 5. Chemoreceptors: respond to chemical substancesChemical: Taste and Smell (Tongue + Nose) Monitor pH changes (blood vessels) Adjust breathing rate according to change in pH (Ears)Painreceptors: respond to chemicals from damaged tissues e.g. reflex protects us from danger
  6. 6. Thermoreceptors: respond to change in temperatureWarmthreceptors: respond when temperature risesColdreceptors: respond when temperature drops REGULATING body temperature (related to HOMEOSTASIS!)
  7. 7. Photoreceptors: respond to light energyLight: Sensitive to light & give us vision (eye) Rod Cell: Respond to dim light Give black and white vision Cone Cell: Respond to bright light Give us color vision
  8. 8. Outer ear catches sound waves Sound waves: successive vibrations of air molecules1. EARDRUM2. BONES of the MIDDLE EAR3. OVAL WINDOW4. HAIR CELLS in the COCHLEA
  9. 9. Sound waves entered  VIBRATE the eardrum ROLE: Pick up sound vibrations from the air Transmitthem to the middle ear
  10. 10. There’s a risk of breaking the ear drum(perforation)Although this is commonly done…it’srecommend against using cotton tippedapplicators, hair pins, and similar devices toclean the ear.
  11. 11. Series of small bones --- OssiclesOssicles: All of them are touched Touched with eardrum and oval window A lever to reduce the amplitude of waves
  12. 12. Muscles:Attached to ossicles to protect ear from loudsounds --- by contracting to damp down vibrations in ossicles
  13. 13. Membranous structure --- like eardrumOval Window: Transmitting sound waves to fluidRound Window: Allows movement of fluid in cochlea (by moving away) Oval window move towards cochlea | Round window moves away
  14. 14. Fluid in cochlea can vibrate freely -- volume remaining constant
  15. 15. Cochlea --- a tube wound to form spiral shape hair receptors (hair cells) on membraneSound waves pass through fluid in cochleaEach hair bundle resonates with particular frequenciesHair cells: have hair bundles send messages across synapse on to brain throughauditory nerve http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCyz8-eAs1I&feature=related
  16. 16. . ....On the Outside• Iris: Regulation• Pupil: Admittance• Lens + Cornea: Focus• Sclera: Protect & Serve• Conjunctiva: Cover & Moisture
  17. 17. From the Inside • Aqueous Humor: Transmission & Support . • Vitreous Humor: .. Transmission & SupportIn the Back• Retina: Receptors• Rods: Black, white, dim• Cones: Colorful, bright• Fovea: Dense with . .cones, acute vision• Choroid: Absorb strays• Optic Nerve: Transmission• Blind Spot: No visionperceived
  18. 18. • Light focused on retina’s photoreceptor cells • Rods • Cones• Vision: Light → Photoreceptor cell → Bipolar neurone → Ganglion cells →Optic Nerve•D&C • Rods: Very sensitive to light, better in dim light • Cones: Less sensitive to light, better in bright light • Bipolar Neurone: Sends message of rods and cones to ganglion cells • Ganglion cells: Cell bodies of optic nerve, transmission to brain.
  19. 19. • Sensitivity & Function • Rods: High sensitivity, prefers dim lights • Cones: Low sensistivity, prefers bright lights• Types of cells • Rods: One type • Cones: 3 types, (Red – Blue – Green)• Attachment to Bipolar Neurones • Rods: Group of rod cells • Cones: Single cone cell
  20. 20. • Light stimulates rods and cones• Impulses sent to Bipolar Neurones & Ganglion cells• Brain corrects image orientation• Study of vision • Optical Illusions • Effects of brain injuries
  21. 21. • Ganglion cells stimulated when lightfalls in receptive field• 2 types of Ganglion cells • A: Light on receptive field = Stimulation, Light on periphery = reduced stimulation • B: Light on periphery = Stimulation, Light on receptive field = reduced stimulation• Both Most Stimulated = Edgebetween contrasts in the receptivefield • Body has a knack for seeing edges
  22. 22. • Optic Chiasma: Intersection of L & R opticnerves• Sharing of information: • L to R, R to L •½+½=1• Brain able to deduce distance, sizes, andidentity. • R Lesions: Identification problems • L Lesions: Naming problems

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