4.1 CHROMOSOMES, GENES, ALLELES AND MUTATIONS Genetics
Eukaryote Chromosomes <ul><li>Eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA which is wound around proteins called histones. </li><...
Definitions <ul><li>Gene: A heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>Allele: One specif...
Mutations <ul><li>Mutation: A change in the base sequence of a gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell anemia  is an example o...
Sickle Cell Anemia <ul><li>In the sequence of bases, a  GAG  is mutated to a  GTG  which causes a  glutamic acid  to be  r...
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4.1 chromosomes, genes, alleles and mutations

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4.1 chromosomes, genes, alleles and mutations

  1. 1. 4.1 CHROMOSOMES, GENES, ALLELES AND MUTATIONS Genetics
  2. 2. Eukaryote Chromosomes <ul><li>Eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA which is wound around proteins called histones. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryote chromosomes do not contain protein. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Gene: A heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>Allele: One specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same locus as other alleles of the gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Genome: The whole of the genetic information of an organism. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mutations <ul><li>Mutation: A change in the base sequence of a gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell anemia is an example of a disease which is caused by a mutation on chromosome 11. It is a condition which causes pain, swelling, infections, kidney failure, gallstones, strokes and anemia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sickle Cell Anemia <ul><li>In the sequence of bases, a GAG is mutated to a GTG which causes a glutamic acid to be replaced by valine . This is what causes a change in the hemoglobin protein and sickle cell anemia condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss = resistant to malaria </li></ul><ul><li>ss = sickle cell anemia </li></ul><ul><li>SS = normal </li></ul>

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